This work investigates the effect of Joule heating and viscous dissipation due to electric double layer (EDL) and electroosmotic effect on steady fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a porous microchannel. Dimensionless formulations of the Poisson-Boltzmann, momentum, and energy equations are derived for the electric potential, velocity profile and temperature distribution in the microchannel. Exact solutions for the temperature distributions and velocity profile were obtained using the method of undeterminate coefficients. The Debye-Hückel linearization is used to get exact solution for the electric potential. The results showed that Brinkmann number ( Br ) , Joule heating parameter ( J ) , Debye-Hückel parameter ( Κ ) , Hartmann number ( M ) , electric field ( E z ) and suction/injection parameter ( S ) have a substantial impact on flow formation and heat transfer. Using MATLAB software, graphical simulations are provided in order to deliver a greater understanding of the influence of relevant parameters on the results achieved.
Rearrangements of the KMT2A gene are characteristic of infantile acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are associated with increased lineage plasticity and resistance to therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 9-month-old infant with infantile ALL who experienced multiple immunophenotypic switches in her leukemia throughout therapy and ultimately achieved remission with the combination of CPX-351 and Inotuzumab. This case highlights the unique clinical challenges infantile ALL poses on monitoring therapeutic response with current methods of measuring minimal residual disease as well as the challenges in treating infantile B-ALL.
In recent decades, the patient survival is increased due to the advances in intensive care units and development of modern mechanic ventilators. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to wean these children from mechanical ventilation. Recently, after placement a tracheostomy tube, they can support at home with non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. Most of the children who need ventilation support at home have neurological impairment. The nutritional issues and gastrointestinal complications are well defined in critically ill patients, but there are very limited studies on the children with tracheostomy. Considering that majority of the patients has neuromuscular disorders, the nutritional and gastrointestinal problems of the children with tracheostomy are discussed, in the light of the knowledge on critically ill patients.
The rapidly expanding market for regenerative medicines and cell therapies highlights the need to advance the understanding of cellular metabolisms and improve the prediction of cultivation production process for human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this paper, a metabolic kinetic model was developed to characterize underlying mechanisms of iPSC culture process, which can predict cell response to environmental perturbation and support process control. This model focuses on the central carbon metabolic network, including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid metabolism, which plays a crucial role to support iPSC proliferation. Heterogeneous measures of extracellular metabolites and multiple isotopic tracers collected under multiple conditions were used to learn metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Systematic cross-validation confirmed the model’s performance in terms of providing reliable predictions on cellular metabolism and culture process dynamics under various culture conditions. Thus, the developed mechanistic kinetic model can support process control strategies to strategically select optimal cell culture conditions at different times, ensure cell product functionality, and facilitate large-scale manufacturing of regenerative medicines and cell therapies.
Numerous mechanisms drive ecological speciation, including isolation by adaptation, barrier, distance, environment, hierarchy, and resistance. These promote genetic and phenotypic differentiation of local populations, formation of phylogeographic lineages, and ultimately, completed speciation via reinforcement. In contrast, it is possible that similar mechanisms might lead to lineage cohesion through stabilizing rather than diversifying ecomorphological selection and the long-term persistence of population structure within species. Processes that drive the formation and maintenance of geographic genetic diversity while facilitating high rates of migration and limiting phenotypic divergence may thereby result in population structure that is not accompanied by divergence towards reproductive isolation. We suggest that this framework can be applied more broadly to address the classic dilemma of “structure versus speciation” when evaluating phylogeographic diversity, unifying population genetics, species delimitation, and the underlying study of speciation. We demonstrate one such instance in the Seepage Salamander (Desmognathus aeneus) from the southeastern United States. Recent studies estimated up to 6.3% mitochondrial divergence and 4 phylogenomic lineages with broad admixture across geographic hybrid zones, which could potentially represent distinct species. However, while limited dispersal promotes substantial isolation by distance, extreme microhabitat specificity appears to yield stabilizing selection on ecologically mediated phenotypes. As a result, climatic cycles promote recurrent contact between lineages that are not adaptively differentiated and therefore experience repeated bouts of high migration and introgression through time. This leads to a unified, single species with deeply divergent phylogeographic lineages that nonetheless do not appear to represent incipient species.
Mesozooplankton is a very diverse group of small animals ranging in size from 0.2 to 20 mm not able to swim against ocean currents. It is a key component of pelagic ecosystems through its roles in the trophic networks and the biological carbon pump. Traditionally studied through microscopes, recent methods have been however developed to rapidly acquire large amounts of data (morphological, molecular) at the individual scale, making it possible to study mesozooplankton using a trait-based approach. Here, combining quantitative imaging with metabarcoding time-series data obtained in the Sargasso Sea at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site, we showed that organisms’ transparency might be an important trait to also consider regarding mesozooplankton impact on carbon export, contrary to the common assumption that just size is the master trait directing most mesozooplankton-linked processes. Three distinct communities were defined based on taxonomic composition, and succeeded one another throughout the study period, with changing levels of transparency among the community. A co-occurrences’ network was built from metabarcoding data revealing six groups of taxa. These were related to changes in the functioning of the ecosystem and/or in the community’s morphology. The importance of Diel Vertical Migration at BATS was confirmed by the existence of a group made of taxa known to be strong migrators. Finally, we assessed if metabarcoding can provide a quantitative approach to biomass and/or abundance of certain taxa. Knowing more about mesozooplankton diversity and its impact on ecosystem functioning would allow to better represent them in biogeochemical models.
Since the analysis of animal behavior is a central element of ethology and ecology, it is not surprising that a great deal of research has been conducted describing the behavior of various ungulates. Most studies were conducted during the daylight hours, thus much less is known about nocturnal behavior. Detailed analyses of nocturnal behavior have only been conducted for very prominent ungulates such as giraffes, elephants, or livestock, and the nocturnal rhythms exhibited by many ungulates remain unknown. In the present study, the nocturnal rhythms of 192 individuals of 18 ungulate species from 20 European zoos are studied with respect to the behavioral positions standing, lying - head up, and lying - head down (the typical REM sleep position). Differences between species of the orders Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla, as well as between individuals of different age were found. However, no differences with respect to the sex were seen. Most species showed a significant increase in the proportion of lying during the night. In addition, the time between two events of “lying down” was studied in detail. A high degree of rhythmicity with respect to this quantity was found in all species. The proportion of lying in such a period was greater in Cetartidactyla than in Perissodactyla, and greater in juveniles than in adults.
For the nonlinear parameter-varying (NPV) model of unmanned surface vehicle (USV) with the consideration of the velocities on yaw and surge as well as wave disturbances, a robust H ∞ control method is proposed based on extended homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov function (EHPLF) to regulate heading for the superior performance on the rapidity, accuracy and robustness. Firstly, a NPV model of heading error is established to design a general form of a state feedback controller with a robust H ∞ performance. Secondly, a Lyapunov matrix with full states and varying parameter is constructed to derive the robust H ∞ global exponential stability conditions by Euler’s homogeneity relation for the NPV system, known as the EHPLF stability conditions. Thirdly, since the EHPLF stability conditions consist of a set of nonlinear coupled inequalities that cannot be directly solved by sum of squares (SOS) toolboxes, they are decoupled with matrix transformations to obtain the EHPLF-SOS stability conditions, which is solved for the parameters of the state feedback controller. Finally, the simulation results indicate that EHPLF method exhibits a superior performance on dynamic, steady-state and robustness.
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), also known as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a group of syndromes in which multiple pathogenic factors lead to the proliferation of activated lymphocytes and histiocytes that secrete large amounts of inflammatory cytokines[](#ref-0001).HLH is a multi-organ hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by the secretion of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines from
SnO2, with its high theoretical capacity, abundant resources, and environmental friendliness, is widely regarded as a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Nevertheless, the coarsening of the Sn nanoparticles impedes the reconversion back to SnO2, resulting in low coulombic efficiency and rapid capacity decay. In this study, we fabricated a heterostructure by combining SnO2 nanoparticles with MoS2 nanosheets via plasma-assisted milling. The heterostructure consists of in-situ exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets predominantly in 1T phase, which tightly encase the SnO2 nanoparticles through strong bonding. This configuration effectively mitigates the volume change and particle aggregation upon cycling. Moreover, the strong affinity of Mo, which is the lithiation product of MoS2, toward Sn plays a pivotal role in inhibiting the coarsening of Sn nanograins, thus enhancing the reversibility of Sn to SnO2 upon cycling. Consequently, the SnO2/MoS2 heterostructure exhibits superb performance as an anode material for LIBs, demonstrating high capacity, rapid rate capability, and extended lifespan. Specifically, discharged/charged at a rate of 0.2 A g-1 for 300 cycles, it achieves a remarkable reversible capacity of 1173.4 mAh g-1. Even cycled at high rates of 1.0 and 5.0 A g-1 for 800 cycles, it still retains high reversible capacities of 1005.3 and 768.8 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the heterostructure exhibits outstanding electrochemical performance in both full LIBs and sodium-ion batteries.
The development of self-charging supercapacitor power cells (SCSPCs) has profound implications for smart electronic devices used in different fields. Here, we epitaxially electrodeposited Mo- and Fe-codoped MnO2 films on piezoelectric ZnO nanoarrays (NAs) grown on the flexible carbon cloth (denoted ZnO@Mo-Fe-MnO2 NAs). An SCSPC device was assembled with the ZnO@Mo-Fe-MnO2 NA electrode and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-Trfe) piezoelectric film doped with BaTiO3 (BTO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (denoted PVDF-Trfe/CNTs/BTO). The SCSPC device exhibited an energy density of 30 μWh cm-2 with a high-power density of 40 mW cm-2, and delivered an excellent self-charging performance of 363 mV (10 N) driven by both the piezoelectric ZnO NAs and the PVDF-Trfe/CNTs/BTO films. More intriguingly, the device also could also be self-charged by 184 mV due to residual stress alone, and showed excellent energy conversion efficiency and low self-discharge rate. This work illustrates for the first time the self-charging mechanism involving electrolyte ion migration driven by both electrodes and films. A comprehensive analysis strongly confirmed the important contribution of the piezoelectric ZnO NAs in the self-charging process of the SCSPC device. This work provides novel directions and insights for the development of SCSPCs.
The emergence of polymerized small molecule acceptors (PSMAs) has significantly improved the performance of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). However, the pace of device engineering lacks behind that of materials development, so that a majority of the PSMAs have not fulfilled their potentials. Furthermore, most high-performance all-PSCs rely on the use of chloroform as the processing solvent. For instance, the recent high-performance PSMA named PJ1-γ, with high LUMO and HOMO levels, could only achieve a PCE of 16.1% with a high-energy-level donor (JD40) using chloroform. Herein, we present a methodology combining sequential processing (SqP) with the addition of 0.5%wt PC71BM as a solid additive (SA) to achieve an impressive efficiency of 18.0% for all-PSCs processed from toluene, an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent. Compared to the conventional blend-casting (BC) method whose best efficiency (16.7%) could only be achieved using chloroform, the SqP method significantly boosted the device efficiency using toluene as the processing solvent. In addition, the donor we employ is the classic PM6 that has deeper energy levels than JD40, which provides low energy loss for the device. We compare the results with another PSMA (PYF-T-o) with the same method. Finally, an improved photostability of the SqP devices with the incorporation of SA is demonstrated.
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques developed over the past two decades have pushed the resolution limit for fluorescently labeled molecules into the nanometer range. These techniques have the potential to study bacterial macromolecular complexes such as secretion systems with single-molecule resolution on a millisecond time scale. Here we review recent applications of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy in molecular bacteriology with a focus on bacterial secretion systems. We also describe MINFLUX fluorescence nanoscopy, a relatively new technique that promises to one day produce molecular movies of bacterial molecular machines in action.
The triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing saturated (Sat) -unsaturated (U) fatty acid moieties (Sat-U mixed acid TAGs) are widely present in most natural fats and employed in many industrial applications. The mixing behavior of different Sat-U mixed acid TAGs acts important roles in the physicochemical properties TAG-based materials. Among the three main mixing states of miscible, eutectic and molecular compound (MC) forming mixtures, fundamental research has been conducted on the MC crystals formed by different Sat-U mixed acid TAGs to understand the structures, phase behavior and crystallization properties. This article reviews recent studies on the complex thermodynamic, kinetic and structural factors that affect the formation of MC crystals in binary and ternary mixtures of Sat-U mixed acid TAGs (SatUSat, SatSatU, USatU and UUSat) through specific molecular interactions among the component TAGs. Furthermore, the application of the MC-forming mixtures containing cacao butter to new types of cocoa butter alternative is reviewed.
Climate suitability analyses based on ecological niche modeling provide a powerful tool for biological control practitioners to assess the likelihood of establishment of different candidate agents prior to their introduction in the field. These same analyses could also be performed to understand why some agents establish more easily than others. The release of three strains of Aphalara itadori (Shinji) (Hemiptera: Pysllidae), each from a different source locality in Japan, for the biological control of invasive knotweed species, Reynoutria spp. Houtt. (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae), provides an important opportunity to compare the utility of climate suitability analyses for identifying potential climate-based limitations for successful biological control introductions. Here we predict climate suitability envelopes for three target species of knotweed in Europe and two target species of knotweed in North America and compare these suitability estimates for each of these species to the source localities of each A. itadori strain. We find that source locality of one strain, the Kyushu strain, has little-to-no suitability compared to other locations in Japan based on knotweed records from Europe, supporting an earlier study based on North American Japanese knotweed records. The source locality of a second strain, the Murakami strain, was predicted to have medium-to-high suitability based on records of knotweeds from North America. In contrast, European records of R. bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková and R. sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Nakai predicted no suitability for this locality compared to other locations in Japan, while European records for R. japonica Houtt. predicted low suitability. The source locality of the final strain, the Hokkaido strain, was predicted as having medium-to-high suitability based on knotweed records of all examined species from both North America and Europe.
Aim: The influence of human factors on safety in healthcare settings is well established, with targeted interventions reducing risk and enhancing team performance. In experimental and early phase clinical research participant safety is paramount and safeguarded by guidelines, protocolised care and staff training, however the real-world interaction and implementation of these risk-mitigating measures has never been subjected to formal system-based assessment. Methods: Independent structured observations, systematic review of study documents, and interviews and focus groups were used to collate data on three key tasks undertaken in a Clinical Research Facilty (CRF) during a SARS CoV-2 controlled human infection model (CHIM) study. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) was employed to analyse and categorise findings, and develop recommendations for safety interventions. Results: High levels of team functioning and a clear focus on participant safety were evident throughout the study. Despite this, latent risks in both study-specific and CRF work systems were identified in all four SEIPS domains (people, environment, tasks and tools). 14 actionable recommendations were generated collaboratively. These included inter-organisation and inter-study standardisation, optimised checklists for safety critical tasks, and use of simulation for team training and exploration of work systems. Conclusion: This pioneering application of human factors techniques to analyse work systems during the conduct of research in a CRF revealed risks unidentified by routine review and appraisal, and despite international guideline adherence. SEIPS may aid categorisation of system problems and the formulation of recommendations that reduce risk and mitigate potential harm applicable across a trials portfolio
Consciousness is one of final questions for humans to tackle in neuroscience. Due to the lack of understanding of the basic brain network and mechanisms of functions, our knowledge of consciousness remains at the theoretical level. Recent studies using brain imaging in humans and modern neuroscience techniques in animal studies reveal a basic brain network for consciousness. The projection from the thalamus to different cortical regions form a network of activities to maintain consciousness in human and animals. These feedback and feedforward circuits maintain the consciousness even in certain brain injury conditions. Proteins and ion channels that contribute to these circuit neural activities are targets for drugs and manipulations that affect consciousness, such as anesthetic agents. Synaptic plasticity that trains synapses during learning and information recall, modify circuits and contribute to a high level of consciousness in certain populations.
ChatGPT Generated Literature Review: Quod Erat Demonstrandum or Ends Justifying the Means?Dear Editor,We would like to draw your attention to the increasing popularity of the generative artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot, ChatGPT (OpenAI, 2023), and its relationship with scientific literature. We have attempted to replicate two literature reviews recently published in Clinical Otolaryngology using ChatGPT, comparing results, conclusions and references.Lee et al. (2022): Posterior nasal neurectomy for intractable rhinitis: A systematic review, was assessed. ChatGPT’s conclusions generated with the same research questions were comparable. However, ChatGPT’s references were confabulated raising questions of provenance and quality.Cereceda-Monteoliva et al. (2021), reviewed sarcoidosis of the ear, nose, and throat. Again, identical research questions generated near-identical results, including numerical values for incidence, features, and management. One generated reference appeared to be ‘similar’ in terms of the author’s name, but the title and journal were entirely incorrect. Of the remaining four references provided by ChatGPT, only one was a recognisable article. Further investigation shows ChatGPT lacks access to research databases, raising doubts about the reliability of the conclusions it presents.It is interesting that ChatGPT should generate correct conclusions but with incorrect working. We are reminded of school mathematics,quad erat demonstrandum (Q.E.D.), and where incorrect working affords you no marks regardless of a correct answer.ChatGPT is a Large Language Model (LLM) AI. Fundamentally, it mimics human intelligence but does not replicate it. ChatGPT does this by analysing vast quantities of data to predict the next most likely word in an answer – erroneously exemplified by the generated references. A scientific literature review follows a superficially similar process, analysing data and outputting a most likely conclusion. Crucially, the latter involves higher-order evaluation and critical thought based on myriad factors that seem currently out of reach for ChatGPT in this specific use case. Readers familiar with Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognition will identify its relevance here.Often literature review produces an already anticipated conclusion but provides some of the highest quality evidence to base medical practice. Therefore, with ChatGPT, the ends do not justify the means for practiced medicine, even if the most likely worded conclusion is accurate.However, the exponential growth of LLM AIs is extraordinary. Near-future iterations of ChatGPT climbing to the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy are easily imagined. Improved critical reasoning with access to accurate databases of peer-reviewed material would substantiate an output, even if the conclusions are unchanged. An accurate ‘show of working’ could provide a meaningful AI-generated literature review to responsibly guide medical practice.Q.E.D. - Quod Erat DemonstrandumReferencesBloom, B.S.,Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company.Cereceda-Monteoliva, N., Rouhani, M. J., Maughan, E. F., Rotman, A., Orban, N. T., Yaghchi, C. A., & Sandhu, G. S. (2021b). Sarcoidosis of the ear, nose and throat: A review of the literature. Clinical Otolaryngology , 46 (5), 935–940.https://doi.org/10.1111/coa.13814Lee, M. L., Chakravarty, P., & Ellul, D. (2022). Posterior nasal neurectomy for intractable rhinitis: A systematic review of the literature. Clinical Otolaryngology , 48 (2), 95–107.https://doi.org/10.1111/coa.13991OpenAI. (2023). OpenAI. Retrieved from https://openai.com/