Single junction crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells are reaching their practical efficiency limit while perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells have achieved efficiencies above the theoretical limit of single junction c-Si solar cells. Next to low-thermal budget silicon heterojunction architecture, high-thermal budget carrier-selective passivating contacts (CSPCs) based on polycrystalline-SiO x (poly-SiO x) also constitute a promising architecture for high efficiency perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells. In this work, we present the development of c-Si bottom cells based on high-temperature poly-SiO x CSPCs and demonstrate novel high-efficiency four-terminal (4T) and two-terminal (2T) perovskite/c-Si tandem solar cells. First, we tuned the ultra-thin, thermally grown SiO x. Then we optimized the passivation properties of p-type and n-type doped poly-SiO x CSPCs. Here, we have optimized the p-type doped poly-SiO x CSPC on textured interfaces via a two-step annealing process. Finally, we integrated such bottom solar cells in both 4T and 2T tandems, achieving 28.1% and 23.2% conversion efficiency, respectively.
In recent years, developing dopant-free carrier-selective contacts, instead of heavily doped Si layer (either externally or internally), for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have attracted considerable interests with the aims to reduce parasitic light absorption and fabrication cost. However, the stability still remains a big challenge for dopant-free contacts, especially when thermal treatment is involved, which limits their industrial adoption. In this study, a perovskite material ZnTiO 3 combining with an ultrathin (~1 nm) SiO 2 film and Al layer is used as an electron-selective contact, forming an isotype heterojunction with n-type c-Si. The perovskite/c-Si heterojunction solar cells exhibit a performance-enhanced effect by post-metallization annealing when the annealing temperature is 200-350 °C. Thanks to the post-annealing treatment, an impressive efficiency of 22.0% has been demonstrated, which is 3.5% in absolute value higher than that of the as-fabricated solar cell. A detailed material and device characterization reveal that post annealing leads to the diffusion of Al into ZnTiO 3 film, thus doping the film and reducing its work function. Besides, the coverage of SiO 2 is also improved. Both these two factors contribute to the enhanced passivation effect and electron selectivity of the ZnTiO 3-based contact, and hence improve the cell performance.