Background: Sedation for lumbar punctures (LPs) in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients has been the standard for decades to reduce pain and anxiety. Recent studies on the potential long-term neurocognitive effects of cumulative propofol exposure has raised concerns about this practice. The recent pandemic introduced additional burdens to patients, with the requirement of a negative COVID-19 test prior to each sedated procedure. Procedure: These factors prompted a quality improvement intervention at our institution where we aimed to reduce post-Induction sedated lumbar punctures (LPs) by 50%. Our intervention included patient and family education followed by a simulation of the procedure for selected patients. Those converted to unsedated LPs were queried for their preference. Comparative cost, clinical time and LP success rates were collected for sedated and unsedated LPs. Results: Following the intervention, the percentage of LPs performed with sedation dropped from 100% to 48.1%. All LPs were successful using both techniques. Most patients who experienced the unsedated LP technique, and their guardians, strongly preferred this approach. Unsedated LPs significantly reduced clinical time (169 vs 83 minutes) for families, decreased expenditures ($5,736.16 reduction per procedure) and improved institutional opportunity cost due to a decrease in last-minute cancellations. Conclusion: We have shown that it is feasible to significantly reduce the use of sedation for LPs in patients with ALL, which has the potential to improve health and patient experience at a lower cost.
Title PageTitle : Pancytopenia in a child with cystic fibrosis and severe copper deficiency: Insight from bone marrow evaluationAuthors : Maggie D. Seblani1,2; Susanna A. McColley2,3,4; Shunyou Gong5; Lee M. Bass2,6; Sherif M. Badawy1,2Affiliations : 1 Division of Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplant, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2 Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; 3 Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4 Stanley Manne Children’s Research Institute, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5 Division of Pediatric Pathology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL; 6 Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL.Correspondence: Sherif M. Badawy, MD, MS, MBBCh, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box #30, Chicago, IL, 60611, office: 312-227-4836, fax: 312-227-9376, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWord count: 498Number of Tables, Figures, and Supplemental files : 1Running title: Bone marrow findings with severe copper deficiencyKeywords: pancytopenia, anemia, leucopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, copper deficiency, ring sideroblasts, copper supplement, cystic fibrosis, malabsorptionConflict of Interest: Author has no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Introduction/Objectives: We evaluated the length of time immunocompromised children (ICC) remain positive for SARS-CoV-2, identified factors associated with viral persistence and determined cycle threshold (CT) values of children with viral persistence as a surrogate of viral load. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ICC at a pediatric hospital from March 2020-2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary, secondary or acquired due to medical comorbidities/immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first-of-two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests at least 24 hours apart. Testing of sequential clinical specimens from the same subject was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel assay. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank-sum tests were used to compare outcomes between groups. Results: Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria. Median age was 15.5 years (IQR 8-18 yrs), 64% were male, 58% were white, and 43% were Hispanic/Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings and 58% were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0,55.0), with no differences in median time by illness presentation or level of immunosuppression. Seven children had >1 sample available for repeat testing, and 5/7 (71%) children had initial CT values of <30, (moderate to high viral load); 4 children had CT values of <30 3-4 weeks later, suggesting persistent moderate to high viral loads. Conclusions: Most ICC with SARS-CoV-2 infection had mild disease, with prolonged viral persistence >6 weeks and moderate to high viral load.
A retrospective analysis of recurrent pediatric ependymoma reveals extremely poor survival ind ineffectiveness of current treatments across central nervous locations and molecular subgroups. Tryggve Lundar MD, PhD1,2, Bernt Johan Due-Tønnessen MD,PhD1Radec Fric MD,PhD1Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital1and University of Oslo2Correponding author:Tryggve LundarDepartment of NeurosurgeryOslo University HospitalPostboks 4950 Nydalen, Oslo, NorwayEmail: email@example.comTotal word count: 474Short running title: GTR can improve outcome after relapse of pediatric ependymomaKey words: Pediatric ependymoma, relapse, repeat surgical resection (GTR)Number of tables: 0Number of figures: 0Letter to the EditorPediatr Blood CancerDear Editor,RE: Ritzmann TA, Rogers HA, Paine SML, Storer LCD, Jacques TS, Chapman RJ, Ellison D, Donson AM, Foreman NK, Grundy RG.A retrospective analysis of recurrent pediatric ependymoma reveals extremely poor survival ind ineffectiveness of current treatments across central nervous locations and molecular subgroups.Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020;67:e28426https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28426Congratulations to the authors with their detailed analysis of further management and outcome in pediatric patients who experience recurrence within a few years after initial treatment for ependymomas.Initial treatment for posterior fossa ependymomas (PFE) is maximal surgical resection (Gross total resection-GTR; if possible) followed by local radiotherapy or chemotherapy in small children. For supratentorial ependymomas (STE) GTR is also recommended (if possible) with or without postoperative radiotherapy.The management at relapses is, however, without consensus. The authors confirm the grave prognosis for these children. In the beginning of the discussion they state: Although primary surgery and irradiation reduced relapse risk variability in different intracranial locations, once a patient recurred these interventions gave, at best, short-term benefits, confirming the need for better therapies.This of course true – better therapies are urgently needed. They point to the lack of consensus regarding treatment at relapse, but recent guidelines have recommended the use of reirradiation and further surgery. In the conclusion they underline that recurrent pediatric ependymoma is highly aggressive with extremely poor outcome.This negative statement, is to some extent, in conflict with the results given under 3.5.2. At relapse: GTR at first relapse was associated with sustained improved EFS (25% vs 0% 10-year survival).This statement is in accord with Vinchon et al1 : Total resection is the only curative treatment for RIE (recurrent intracranial ependymoma) and is often possible, especially when the initial resection was total.How often GTR is within reach at local relapes may be a difficult matter. We have, however, observed several patients who underwent GTR after recurrence, and are tumor-free today after many years of further follow-up(up to 27 years) without any additional treatment2. We recognize that these patients are few compared to the majority of pediatric ependymoma patients who do not grow-up to be well functioning adults. It is, however, important for these small patients and their caretakers to have a hope for cure even after relapse. The role of GTR if possible may be under-communicated.Kind regardsTryggve LundarBernt Johan Due-TønnessenRadek Fric
Cobalamin deficiency during treatment of pediatric precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemiaHiromi Kinoshita1), Atsuko Watanabe2), Yoshitada Taji1), Moe Yoshimura2), Atsuhiko Ota2), Takashi Fukushima2), Ryuhei Tanaka2), Yasuhiro Ebihara1, 3)1) Clinical Laboratory, 2)Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 3)Department of Laboratory Medicine, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama, JapanCorresponding author: Yasuhiro Ebihara, MD, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka-shi, Saitama 350-1298, JapanTEL: +81-42-984-4384; FAX: +81-42-984-4384E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.orgWord countMain text: 500Figure: 1Supplementary Table: 1Running title: Cobalamin deficiency in pediatric BCP-ALLKeywords: cobalamin deficiency, pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, erythroid dysplasia, nutritionTo the editor,There has been considerable progress in supportive therapy and care strategies for patients with cancer, but nutritional problems may still arise during treatment 1. Herein, we report on a 4-year-old boy who was diagnosed with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Complete remission was achieved and maintained. Eight months later, he underwent late intensification treatment, which contained three cycles of methotrexate 500 mg/m2. BM examination scheduled before he went into the maintenance phase showed erythroid dominance and apparent dysplasia, including megaloblastic change, multinuclearity, karyorrhexis, and nuclear budding, and a few Howell-Jolly bodies were noted in the cytoplasm of some erythroid cells (Figure 1). Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was suspected because he had received several anti-leukemic drugs that could induce treatment-related MDS. These morphological changes are seen in folate and/or cobalamin deficiency, which might be mistaken for MDS or acute leukemia 2, 3. The laboratory investigations (Table S1) revealed a decreased serum cobalamin level of 145 pg/mL, indicating that the erythroid dysplasia was due to cobalamin deficiency. Oral replacement therapy of mecobalamin, 500 µg/day, was started. Ten days later, BM examination revealed that the erythroid dysplasia had mostly disappeared. The final diagnosis was erythroid dysplasia caused by cobalamin deficiency. The patient subsequently underwent maintenance treatment and has remained in CR.A characteristic feature of cobalamin deficiency is nuclear-cytoplasm asynchrony in erythroid maturation, whereby maturation of the nucleus is delayed relative to that of the cytoplasm because cobalamin is essential for DNA synthesis 4, 5. Cobalamin deficiency is very rare in childhood, and is seen mainly in children with inadequate intake, breast-feeding infants with a cobalamin-deficient mother, and those with congenital malabsorption4, 5. The occurrence of cobalamin deficiency in the middle of the ALL treatment is extremely rare for the pediatric patients who can take orally and developing normally. In pediatric ALL patients, the existence of cobalamin deficiency before treatment was reported 6,7, but there is almost no report about cobalamin deficiency during treatment. We could not find any factors which might induce cobalamin deficiency. However, it was possible that the repeated episodes of BM suppression, the recovery from which required more cobalamin for maturation of blood cells, and accumulation of anorexic episodes a caused by administration of anti-leukemic drugs and treatment complications might have led to a gradual decrease in his serum cobalamin level, culminating in cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin deficiency requires parenteral or oral replacement therapy 4, 8. It is reported that response to replacement is rapid (within 5 days) and megaloblastic anemia can be corrected in 6-8 weeks 4,5. However, the erythroid dysplasia in BM resolved almost completely after 10 days of cobalamin replacement, and improvement in both peripheral blood (Table S1) and BM were clearly achieved in our patient. Although there have been reports of improved laboratory data in peripheral blood 2,4, 5, there are few descriptions on findings in BM 9. Although there has been considerable progress in supportive therapy and care strategies for children with cancer, their nutritional status should be monitored carefully during treatment.
SUCCESSFUL USE OF CRUSHED FORMULATION OF DABRAFENIB AND TRAMETINIB IN A PEDIATRIC GLIONEURAL TUMORTania Mamdouhi1, Anshul Vagrecha2, Alan A. Johnson1,3, Carolyn Fein Levy1,2, Mark Atlas 1,2, Julie I. Krystal 1,2 1 Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY2 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology and Cellular Therapy, Cohen Children’s Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY3 Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NYCorresponding Author : Julie Krystal. Cohen Children’s Medical Center, 269- 01 76th Avenue, Suite 255, New Hyde Park, NY 11040. Jkrystal12@northwell.edu. Phone 718-470-3460. Fax 718-343-4642.Tables: 0Figures: 1Supporting Information Files : 0Short running title: Use of crushed formulation of dabrafenib and trametinibKeywords : Dabrafenib, Trametinib, BRAF, crushedData Availability: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection with clinical features of Kawasaki-like disease was reported in various pediatric centers in late April 2020. Currently, cases have increased throughout the world with a range of manifestations from less to greater severity. However, hemophagocytosis has not been described in patients with MIS-C. We describe two infants diagnosed with MIS-C who presented Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) with hemophagocytosis documented in the bone marrow. MIS-C can be complicated with MAS, the key features for diagnosis are splenomegaly, hypofibrinogenemia, hypertriglyceridemia and bone marrow hemophagocytosis. Cytokine storm and MAS in MIS-C may represent part of the spectrum of the disease and HScore could be of value in order to give timely and aggressive treatment.
Background: Children with hematologic malignancies, especially those who receive intensive chemotherapy, are at high risk for invasive mold infections (IMI) that confer substantial mortality. Randomized controlled trials support the use of anti-fungal prophylaxis with anti-mold activity as an optimal strategy for risk reduction in this population, but studies outlining the practical application of evidence-based recommendations are lacking. Procedure: We conducted a 15-year, single-institution retrospective review of children with hematologic malignancies treated with chemotherapy to determine the incidence of proven or probable IMI diagnosed between 2006 and 2020 and to identify the host and disease factors associated with IMI risk. We then compared the incidence and type of IMI and related factors before and after 2016 implementation of an evidence-based, risk-adapted anti-fungal prophylaxis algorithm that broadened coverage to include molds in patients at highest risk for IMI. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine factors related to IMI risk. Results: We identified 61 cases of proven or probable IMI in 1,456 patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies during the study period (4.2%). Implementation of an anti-fungal prophylaxis algorithm reduced the IMI incidence in this population from 4.8% to 2.9%. After multivariable analysis, both Hispanic ethnicity and cancer diagnosis prior to 2016 were significantly associated with risk for IMI. Conclusion: An evidence-based, risk-adapted approach to anti-fungal prophylaxis for children with hematologic malignancies is an effective strategy to reduce incidence of IMI.
Unusual ovarian leukemic relapse in a girl with history of B cell lymphoblastic leukemiaACH Fung, KKY WongTo the editor:Extramedullary leukemic recurrence mostly occurs in the central nervous system and occasionally in the skin.  Here, we report an unusual case of a girl with relapsed lymphoblastic leukemia involving the ovary, presenting as a large pelvic mass.A 10-year-old girl with history of B cell lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment and in remission 1 year ago presented to oncology clinic with an enlarging pelvic mass for 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large lobulated solid heterogeneous pelvic mass (measuring 12cm in greatest dimension) with mass effect on pelvic organs (Figure 1a). Bone marrow aspirate at conventional site confirmed absence of lymphoblastic cells, which would have suggested leukaemia relapse. In view of the suspicion of a second primary tumour in the ovary with complication, exploratory laparotomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy were performed (Figure 1b). Histology showed diffuse infiltration of the ovary by B cell lymphoblastic leukaemia. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed sheets of lymphoid cells with irregular nuclei. The tumour cells are positive for TdT, CD19, CD79a and CD34. (Figure 1c) She was well after operation. In view of extramedullary relapse, bone marrow aspirate was repeated after operation at anterior iliac spine which confirmed bone marrow relapse. She received treatment according to high risk protocol of CCCG Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 2017 Study in Children .Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is responsible for one-third of childhood malignancy. Despite efforts in the treatment of ALL, 15-20% of patients developed relapse with highest risk immediately after cessation of treatment and diminishes with time.  Extramedullary involvement constitutes 2-5% of all relapses with the majority in the central nervous system. It seldom involves other sites, such as the eye, kidney, and omentum. Ovarian leukemic relapse is rarely reported in children with scarce case reports in the literature [4, 5] It is insidious and not usually detected until symptoms arise. Patient most commonly presents with lower abdominal pain or a palpable large abdominal mass.  Timely detection is important as it often coincides with marrow recurrence. Routine surveillance pelvic sonography is recommended for timely detection of pelvic extramedullary relapse. In patients with background of leukaemia presenting with an ovarian mass, a higher level of suspicion needs to be kept. In the absence of evidence in bone marrow relapse at conventional site, repeat marrow aspirate at another site would be warranted since this affect the choice of management. Previous reports shown that mainly chemotherapy had a beneficial effect, while neither local radiation nor extensive surgical resection of the leukaemic mass had any obvious effect on overall outcome . Operation could have been avoided if marrow relapse is confirmed at the time of ovarian mass detection. However, surgical excision was reported to have role in situation when bone marrow had good response but no signs of regression of ovarian mass. Reference1. Kim, J.W., et al., Ovarian and multiple lymph nodes recurrence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report and review of literature. Pediatr Surg Int, 2008. 24 (11): p. 1269-73.2. CCCG Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 2017 Study in Children .https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT04224571.3. Berretta, R., et al., Isolated ovarian relapse of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 2009.22 (4): p. e65-8.4. Kantekure, K., et al., A unique case of relapsed B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma as an isolated omental mass. Case Rep Hematol, 2014. 2014 : p. 425163.5. Sava, C.N., et al., Unusual extramedullary relapses in a case of common B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case report and review of literature. Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2019. 60 (1): p. 249-254.6. Turial, S., et al., Ovarian tumours: late extramedullary recurrence of acute leukaemia. Eur J Pediatr Surg, 2009.19 (3): p. 184-6.7. Lane, D.M. and R.L. Birdwell, Ovarian leukemia detected by pelvic sonography. A case report. Cancer, 1986. 58 (10): p. 2338-42.8. Pais, R.C., et al., Ovarian tumors in relapsing acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a review of 23 cases. J Pediatr Surg, 1991.26 (1): p. 70-4.9. Till, H., O. Muensterer, and U. Graubner, Laparoscopic adnexectomy of a persistent ovarian tumor in a girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse. Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2003.20 (5): p. 417-20.
Congenital lymphatic leak may develop in patients with maldeveloped lymphatics and result in life-threatening fluid and electrolyte imbalance, protein deficiency and immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are necessary to prevent these complications; however, the field lacks clinical trials to support standardized diagnostic treatment guidelines. We present our current multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of congenital lymphatic leak including chylous pleural effusion and ascites. Depending on the rate of lymphatic leak, therapy can range from observation with nutritional modifications to surgical and interventional procedures aimed to reduce lymphatic drainage. Modalities to image central and peripheral lymphatics have advanced considerably. Genetic variants and subsequent targets that drive lymphatic maldevelopment have expanded the repertoire of possible pharmacotherapeutic options.
Background: Cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been established as a novel treatment approach for peritoneal sarcomatosis. Despite promising clinical reports, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding optimal drug usage and local effects. Therefore, we intended to establish a murine animal model for further evaluation. Procedure: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells were xenotransplanted into NOD/LtSz-scid IL2Rγnullmice (n=100). The mice received a continuous intraperitoneal lavage with isotonic saline solution as control- or with cisplatin (30 or 60 mg/m2) as treatment group for 60 minutes at 37 or 42 °C (6 subgroups, each n=16). Tumor spread was documented by an adapted peritoneal cancer index and MRI (n=4). Tumor and tissue samples, harvested at the end of the perfusion, were evaluated regarding morphology, proliferation and apoptosis (H&E-, Ki-67-, Cleaved Caspase 3-staining, TUNEL-assay). Results: Extensive peritoneal sarcomatosis in over 91% of the cases was observed. HIPEC was feasible without acute side effects. Ki-67 staining revealed concentration- or temperature-dependent effects of cisplatin-based HIPEC on the tumors. While Cleaved Caspase-3 showed only sporadic apoptotic effects. TUNEL-assay detected concentration- or temperature-dependent apoptotic effects at the outer tumor surface. MRI scans confirmed the observed tumor dissemination. Conclusion: This is the first animal model for evaluation of HIPEC in pediatric RMS in mice. Cisplatin-based HIPEC had early effects on the proliferation whereas circumscribed apoptotic effects could be detected at the tumor surface. This model allows further insights on the possible efficiency of HIPEC in RMS. Further studies using other drug combinations and treatment will follow.
A 13-year-old healthy girl presented with dizziness and palpitations, found to have a left atrial mass. An 8 cm tumor was removed. Pathology confirmed leiomyosarcoma, Grade 3 with positive margins. She was treated with ifosfamide and doxorubicin prior to radiation with concurrent ifosfamide alone. She was treated to 66 Gy in 33 fractions to the operative bed. Prospectively graded toxicities included Gr 2 esophagitis and Gr 1 anorexia, dermatitis and fatigue. She completed a total of 6 cycles of ifosfamide. One year after treatment she had no evidence of disease with normal ECHO and no cardiac, pulmonary or esophageal symptoms.
Background Previous studies have explored post-hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) outcomes by race in adults; however, pediatric data addressing this topic are scarce. Procedure This retrospective registry study included 238 White (W) and 57 Black (B) children with hematologic malignancies (HM) receiving first allogeneic HCT between 2010 and 2019 in one of five Florida pediatric HCT centers. Results We found no differences between W and B children by transplant characteristics, other than donor type. There was a significant difference in use of HLA-mismatched donors (HLA-MMD) (53% W, 71% B, p=0.01). When comparing HLA-MMD use to fully HLA-matched donors, B had RR of 1.47 [95% CI 0.7-3] of receiving a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD), RR of 2.34 [95% CI 1.2-4.4] of receiving a mismatched related donor (MMRD), and a RR of 1.9 [95% CI 0.99-3.6] of receiving a mismatched cord blood donor (MMCBD) HCT, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of aGVHD (48% W, 35% B), p=0.1 or cGVHD (19% W 28% B, p=0.1), or primary cause of death. Overall 24-month survival was 61% [95% CI 54-68%] for W, and 60% [95% CI 38-68] for B children, log-rank p=0.72. While HLA matching improved survival in W children, the number of B children receiving HLA-matched HCT was too small to identify the impact of HLA matching on survival. Conclusions In this contemporary cohort of children with HM we found that B children were more likely to receive HLA-MMD transplants, but this did not adversely affect survival or GVHD rates.
Background – Loss of bone mineral is a common concomitant of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) due mainly to chemotherapy, especially with corticosteroids. Osteopenia/osteoporosis may persist long into survivorship. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is limited to two-dimensionality and cannot distinguish trabecular from cortical bone. Methods – A sample of 74 subjects, more than 10 years from diagnosis, underwent peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at metaphyseal (trabecular bone) and diaphyseal (cortical bone) sites in the radius and tibia. pQCT provides three-dimensional assessment of bone geometry, density and architecture. Results – Similarities of average values in multiple metrics with those in healthy subjects obscured deficits in both trabecular and cortical bone, as well as bone strength, revealed by Z scores using an ethnically comparable sample of healthy individuals. Connectivity, a measure of bone architecture and a surrogate measure of bone strength, was lower in females than males. Survivors of standard risk ALL had greater connectivity in and more compact trabecular bone than high risk survivors who had received more intensive osteotoxic chemotherapy. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the metrics at any of the sites between subjects who had or had not a history of fracture, cranial irradiation or use of a bisphosphonate. Conclusions – These long-term survivors of ALL have somehat compromised bone health, but data in comparable healthy populations are limited. Longitudinal studies in larger and more ethnically diverse cohorts will provide greater insight into bone health in this vulnerable population.
BACKGROUND: Workplace burnout can result in negative consequences for clinicians and patients. We assessed burnout prevalence and sources among pediatric hematology/oncology inpatient nurses, ambulatory nurses, physicians (MDs), and advanced practice providers (APPs) by evaluating effects of job demands and involvement in patient safety events (PSEs). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (Maslach Burnout Inventory) measured emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The NASA Task Load Index measured mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, effort, and frustration. Relative weights analyses estimated the unique contributions of tasks and PSEs on burnout. Post-hoc analyses evaluated open-response comments for burnout factors. RESULTS: Burnout prevalence was 33%, 20%, 34% and 33% in inpatient nurses, ambulatory nurses, and MD, and APPs respectively (N=481, response rate 69%). Reduced personal accomplishment was significantly higher in inpatient nurses than MDs & APPs. Job frustration was the most significant predictor of burnout across all four cohorts. Other significant predictors of burnout included temporal demand (nursing groups & MDs) effort (inpatient nurses & MDs) and PSE involvement (ambulatory nurses). Open-response comments identified time constraints, lack of administrator support, insufficient institutional support for self-care, and inadequate staffing and/or turnover as sources of frustration. CONCLUSIONS: All four clinician groups reported substantial levels of burnout, and job demands predicted burnout. The body of knowledge on job stress and workplace burnout supports targeting organizational-level sources, versus individual-level factors, as the most effective prevention and reduction strategy. This study elaborates on this evidence by identifying structural drivers of burnout within a multidisciplinary context of pediatric hematology/oncology clinicians.