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Michael Weekes

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Nick K. Jones1,2*, Lucy Rivett1,2*, Chris Workman3, Mark Ferris3, Ashley Shaw1, Cambridge COVID-19 Collaboration1,4, Paul J. Lehner1,4, Rob Howes5, Giles Wright3, Nicholas J. Matheson1,4,6¶, Michael P. Weekes1,7¶1 Cambridge University NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK2 Clinical Microbiology & Public Health Laboratory, Public Health England, Cambridge, UK3 Occupational Health and Wellbeing, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK4 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK5 Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre and AstraZeneca, Anne Mclaren Building, Cambridge, UK6 NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK7 Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK*Joint first authorship¶Joint last authorshipCorrespondence: [email protected] UK has initiated mass COVID-19 immunisation, with healthcare workers (HCWs) given early priority because of the potential for workplace exposure and risk of onward transmission to patients. The UK’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended maximising the number of people vaccinated with first doses at the expense of early booster vaccinations, based on single dose efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 disease.1-3At the time of writing, three COVID-19 vaccines have been granted emergency use authorisation in the UK, including the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). A vital outstanding question is whether this vaccine prevents or promotes asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, rather than symptomatic COVID-19 disease, because sub-clinical infection following vaccination could continue to drive transmission. This is especially important because many UK HCWs have received this vaccine, and nosocomial COVID-19 infection has been a persistent problem.Through the implementation of a 24 h-turnaround PCR-based comprehensive HCW screening programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT), we previously demonstrated the frequent presence of pauci- and asymptomatic infection amongst HCWs during the UK’s first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.4 Here, we evaluate the effect of first-dose BNT162b2 vaccination on test positivity rates and cycle threshold (Ct) values in the asymptomatic arm of our programme, which now offers weekly screening to all staff.Vaccination of HCWs at CUHNFT began on 8th December 2020, with mass vaccination from 8th January 2021. Here, we analyse data from the two weeks spanning 18thto 31st January 2021, during which: (a) the prevalence of COVID-19 amongst HCWs remained approximately constant; and (b) we screened comparable numbers of vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Over this period, 4,408 (week 1) and 4,411 (week 2) PCR tests were performed from individuals reporting well to work. We stratified HCWs <12 days or > 12 days post-vaccination because this was the point at which protection against symptomatic infection began to appear in phase III clinical trial.226/3,252 (0·80%) tests from unvaccinated HCWs were positive (Ct<36), compared to 13/3,535 (0·37%) from HCWs <12 days post-vaccination and 4/1,989 (0·20%) tests from HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination (p=0·023 and p=0·004, respectively; Fisher’s exact test, Figure). This suggests a four-fold decrease in the risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination, compared to unvaccinated HCWs, with an intermediate effect amongst HCWs <12 days post-vaccination.A marked reduction in infections was also seen when analyses were repeated with: (a) inclusion of HCWs testing positive through both the symptomatic and asymptomatic arms of the programme (56/3,282 (1·71%) unvaccinated vs 8/1,997 (0·40%) ≥12 days post-vaccination, 4·3-fold reduction, p=0·00001); (b) inclusion of PCR tests which were positive at the limit of detection (Ct>36, 42/3,268 (1·29%) vs 15/2,000 (0·75%), 1·7-fold reduction, p=0·075); and (c) extension of the period of analysis to include six weeks from December 28th to February 7th 2021 (113/14,083 (0·80%) vs 5/4,872 (0·10%), 7·8-fold reduction, p=1x10-9). In addition, the median Ct value of positive tests showed a non-significant trend towards increase between unvaccinated HCWs and HCWs > 12 days post-vaccination (23·3 to 30·3, Figure), suggesting that samples from vaccinated individuals had lower viral loads.We therefore provide real-world evidence for a high level of protection against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection after a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, at a time of predominant transmission of the UK COVID-19 variant of concern 202012/01 (lineage B.1.1.7), and amongst a population with a relatively low frequency of prior infection (7.2% antibody positive).5This work was funded by a Wellcome Senior Clinical Research Fellowship to MPW (108070/Z/15/Z), a Wellcome Principal Research Fellowship to PJL (210688/Z/18/Z), and an MRC Clinician Scientist Fellowship (MR/P008801/1) and NHSBT workpackage (WPA15-02) to NJM. Funding was also received from Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust and the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. We also acknowledge contributions from all staff at CUHNFT Occupational Health and Wellbeing and the Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre.

Guangming Wang

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Tam Hunt

and 1 more

Tam Hunt [1], Jonathan SchoolerUniversity of California Santa Barbara Synchronization, harmonization, vibrations, or simply resonance in its most general sense seems to have an integral relationship with consciousness itself. One of the possible “neural correlates of consciousness” in mammalian brains is a combination of gamma, beta and theta synchrony. More broadly, we see similar kinds of resonance patterns in living and non-living structures of many types. What clues can resonance provide about the nature of consciousness more generally? This paper provides an overview of resonating structures in the fields of neuroscience, biology and physics and attempts to coalesce these data into a solution to what we see as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem, which is generally known as the “combination problem” or the “binding problem.” The combination problem asks: how do micro-conscious entities combine into a higher-level macro-consciousness? The proposed solution in the context of mammalian consciousness suggests that a shared resonance is what allows different parts of the brain to achieve a phase transition in the speed and bandwidth of information flows between the constituent parts. This phase transition allows for richer varieties of consciousness to arise, with the character and content of that consciousness in each moment determined by the particular set of constituent neurons. We also offer more general insights into the ontology of consciousness and suggest that consciousness manifests as a relatively smooth continuum of increasing richness in all physical processes, distinguishing our view from emergentist materialism. We refer to this approach as a (general) resonance theory of consciousness and offer some responses to Chalmers’ questions about the different kinds of “combination problem.”  At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync…. [T]hese feats of synchrony occur spontaneously, almost as if nature has an eerie yearning for order. Steven Strogatz, Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos in the Universe, Nature and Daily Life (2003) If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.Nikola Tesla (1942) I.               Introduction Is there an “easy part” and a “hard part” to the Hard Problem of consciousness? In this paper, we suggest that there is. The harder part is arriving at a philosophical position with respect to the relationship of matter and mind. This paper is about the “easy part” of the Hard Problem but we address the “hard part” briefly in this introduction.  We have both arrived, after much deliberation, at the position of panpsychism or panexperientialism (all matter has at least some associated mind/experience and vice versa). This is the view that all things and processes have both mental and physical aspects. Matter and mind are two sides of the same coin.  Panpsychism is one of many possible approaches that addresses the “hard part” of the Hard Problem. We adopt this position for all the reasons various authors have listed (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1997, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017). This first step is particularly powerful if we adopt the Whiteheadian version of panpsychism (Whitehead 1929).  Reaching a position on this fundamental question of how mind relates to matter must be based on a “weight of plausibility” approach, rather than on definitive evidence, because establishing definitive evidence with respect to the presence of mind/experience is difficult. We must generally rely on examining various “behavioral correlates of consciousness” in judging whether entities other than ourselves are conscious – even with respect to other humans—since the only consciousness we can know with certainty is our own. Positing that matter and mind are two sides of the same coin explains the problem of consciousness insofar as it avoids the problems of emergence because under this approach consciousness doesn’t emerge. Consciousness is, rather, always present, at some level, even in the simplest of processes, but it “complexifies” as matter complexifies, and vice versa. Consciousness starts very simple and becomes more complex and rich under the right conditions, which in our proposed framework rely on resonance mechanisms. Matter and mind are two sides of the coin. Neither is primary; they are coequal.  We acknowledge the challenges of adopting this perspective, but encourage readers to consider the many compelling reasons to consider it that are reviewed elsewhere (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1998, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017, Schooler, Schooler, & Hunt, 2011; Schooler, 2015).  Taking a position on the overarching ontology is the first step in addressing the Hard Problem. But this leads to the related questions: at what level of organization does consciousness reside in any particular process? Is a rock conscious? A chair? An ant? A bacterium? Or are only the smaller constituents, such as atoms or molecules, of these entities conscious? And if there is some degree of consciousness even in atoms and molecules, as panpsychism suggests (albeit of a very rudimentary nature, an important point to remember), how do these micro-conscious entities combine into the higher-level and obvious consciousness we witness in entities like humans and other mammals?  This set of questions is known as the “combination problem,” another now-classic problem in the philosophy of mind, and is what we describe here as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem. Our characterization of this part of the problem as “easy”[2] is, of course, more than a little tongue in cheek. The authors have discussed frequently with each other what part of the Hard Problem should be labeled the easier part and which the harder part. Regardless of the labels we choose, however, this paper focuses on our suggested solution to the combination problem.  Various solutions to the combination problem have been proposed but none have gained widespread acceptance. This paper further elaborates a proposed solution to the combination problem that we first described in Hunt 2011 and Schooler, Hunt, and Schooler 2011. The proposed solution rests on the idea of resonance, a shared vibratory frequency, which can also be called synchrony or field coherence. We will generally use resonance and “sync,” short for synchrony, interchangeably in this paper. We describe the approach as a general resonance theory of consciousness or just “general resonance theory” (GRT). GRT is a field theory of consciousness wherein the various specific fields associated with matter and energy are the seat of conscious awareness.  A summary of our approach appears in Appendix 1.  All things in our universe are constantly in motion, in process. Even objects that appear to be stationary are in fact vibrating, oscillating, resonating, at specific frequencies. So all things are actually processes. Resonance is a specific type of motion, characterized by synchronized oscillation between two states.  An interesting phenomenon occurs when different vibrating processes come into proximity: they will often start vibrating together at the same frequency. They “sync up,” sometimes in ways that can seem mysterious, and allow for richer and faster information and energy flows (Figure 1 offers a schematic). Examining this phenomenon leads to potentially deep insights about the nature of consciousness in both the human/mammalian context but also at a deeper ontological level.

Susanne Schilling*^

and 9 more

Jessica mead

and 6 more

The construct of wellbeing has been criticised as a neoliberal construction of western individualism that ignores wider systemic issues including increasing burden of chronic disease, widening inequality, concerns over environmental degradation and anthropogenic climate change. While these criticisms overlook recent developments, there remains a need for biopsychosocial models that extend theoretical grounding beyond individual wellbeing, incorporating overlapping contextual issues relating to community and environment. Our first GENIAL model \cite{Kemp_2017} provided a more expansive view of pathways to longevity in the context of individual health and wellbeing, emphasising bidirectional links to positive social ties and the impact of sociocultural factors. In this paper, we build on these ideas and propose GENIAL 2.0, focusing on intersecting individual-community-environmental contributions to health and wellbeing, and laying an evidence-based, theoretical framework on which future research and innovative therapeutic innovations could be based. We suggest that our transdisciplinary model of wellbeing - focusing on individual, community and environmental contributions to personal wellbeing - will help to move the research field forward. In reconceptualising wellbeing, GENIAL 2.0 bridges the gap between psychological science and population health health systems, and presents opportunities for enhancing the health and wellbeing of people living with chronic conditions. Implications for future generations including the very survival of our species are discussed.  

Mark Ferris

and 14 more

IntroductionConsistent with World Health Organization (WHO) advice [1], UK Infection Protection Control guidance recommends that healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should use fluid resistant surgical masks type IIR (FRSMs) as respiratory protective equipment (RPE), unless aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) are being undertaken or are likely, when a filtering face piece 3 (FFP3) respirator should be used [2]. In a recent update, an FFP3 respirator is recommended if “an unacceptable risk of transmission remains following rigorous application of the hierarchy of control” [3]. Conversely, guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19 should use an N95 or higher level respirator [4]. WHO guidance suggests that a respirator, such as FFP3, may be used for HCWs in the absence of AGPs if availability or cost is not an issue [1].A recent systematic review undertaken for PHE concluded that: “patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are breathing, talking or coughing generate both respiratory droplets and aerosols, but FRSM (and where required, eye protection) are considered to provide adequate staff protection” [5]. Nevertheless, FFP3 respirators are more effective in preventing aerosol transmission than FRSMs, and observational data suggests that they may improve protection for HCWs [6]. It has therefore been suggested that respirators should be considered as a means of affording the best available protection [7], and some organisations have decided to provide FFP3 (or equivalent) respirators to HCWs caring for COVID-19 patients, despite a lack of mandate from local or national guidelines [8].Data from the HCW testing programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT) during the first wave of the UK severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic indicated a higher incidence of infection amongst HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19, compared with those who did not [9]. Subsequent studies have confirmed this observation [10, 11]. This disparity persisted at CUHNFT in December 2020, despite control measures consistent with PHE guidance and audits indicating good compliance. The CUHNFT infection control committee therefore implemented a change of RPE for staff on “red” (COVID-19) wards from FRSMs to FFP3 respirators. In this study, we analyse the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs before and after this transition.

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Moyi Zhu

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The selection of a food supplier involves multiple criteria, making the decision-making process complex and uncertain due to the presence of many unmeasurable and conflicting factors. To address this, this study proposes an integrated methodology that utilizes the advantages of interval numbers in dealing with complex and uncertain problems. Specifically, we suggest using the best-worst method (BWM) and the TODIM (an acronym in Portuguese for interactive and multiple attribute decision making) technique in an interval numbers environment. We introduce a new approach called interval best-worst method (IBWM) which employs interval preference degree and interval weight, and based on this, we propose the group interval BWM (GIBWM) method. Additionally, we present a novel interval TODIM (I-TODIM) method that is computationally simple, avoids the two paradoxes of the traditional TODIM method, and provides a clearer and more accurate interpretation of rankings. Furthermore, we suggest a geometric probability-based method for calculating preference and a preference-based method for calculating distance between two intervals. The method proposed in this paper has been validated by the food supplier selection problem based on real data and opinions from management experts and purchasing officer. We also conduct sensitivity and comparative analyses and discuss the effectiveness and advantages of our method. Index Terms-Group interval best-worst method (GIBWM), multiple criteria decision making (MCDM), interval TODIM method (I-TODIM), food supplier selection (FSS)

Siyuan Wang

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The marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium has a remarkable ability to interact with and utilize air-borne dust as a nutrient source. However, dust may adversely affect Trichodesmium through buoyancy loss and exposure to toxic metals. Our study explored the effect of desert dust on buoyancy and mortality of natural Red Sea puff-shaped Trichodesmium thiebautii. Sinking velocities and ability of individual colonies to stay afloat with increasing dust loads were studied in sedimentation chambers. Low dust loads of up to ~400 ng per colony did not impact initial sinking velocity and colonies remained afloat in the chamber. Above this threshold, sinking velocity increased linearly with the colony dust load at a slope matching prediction based on Stoke’s law. The potential toxicity of dust was assessed with regards to metal dissolution kinetics, differentiating between rapidly released metals that may impact surface blooms and gradually released metals that may impact dust-centering colonies. Incubations with increasing dust concentrations revealed colony demise, but the observed lethal dose far exceeded dust concentrations measured in coastal and open ocean systems. Removal of toxic particles as a mechanism to reduce toxicity was explored using SEM-EDX imaging of colonies incubated with Cu-minerals, yet observations did not support this pathway. Combining our current and former experiments, we suggest that in natural settings the nutritional benefits gained by Trichodesmium via dust collection outweigh the risks of buoyancy loss and toxicity. Our data and concepts feed into the growing recognition of the significance of dust for Trichodesmium’s ecology and subsequently to ocean productivity.

Mohammad Barani

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Ionospheric heavy ions in the distant tail of the Earth’s magnetosphere at lunar distances are observed using the ARTEMIS mission. These heavy ions are originally produced in the terrestrial ionosphere. Using the ElectroStatic Analyzers (ESA) onboard the two probes orbiting the Moon, these heavy ions are observed as cold populations with distinct energies higher than the baseline energy of protons, with the energy-per-charge values for the heavy populations highly correlated with the proton energies. We conducted a full solar cycle survey of these heavy ion observations, including the flux, location, and drift energy, as well as the correlations with the solar wind and geomagnetic indices. The likelihood of finding these heavy ions in the preferred regions of observation called “loaded” quadrants of the terrestrial magnetotail is ~90%, regardless of the z orientation of the IMF. We characterize the ratio of the heavy ion energy to the proton energy, as well as the velocity ratio of these two populations, for events from 2010 to mid-2023. This study shows that the “common velocity” assumption for the proton and heavy ion particles, as suggested in previous work through the velocity filter effect, is not necessarily valid in this case. Challenges in the identification of the mass of the heavy ions due to the ESA’s lack of ion composition discrimination are addressed. It is proposed that at the lunar distances the heavy ion population mainly consists of atomic oxygen ions (O+) with velocities ~25% more than the velocity of the co-located proton population.

Ethan Tsai

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Energetic electron losses by pitch-angle scattering and precipitation to the atmosphere from the radiation belts are controlled, to a great extent, by resonant wave particle interactions with whistler-mode waves. The efficacy of such precipitation is primarily controlled by wave intensity, although its relative importance, compared to other wave and plasma parameters, remains unclear. Precipitation spectra from the low-altitude, polar-orbiting ELFIN mission have previously been demonstrated to be consistent with energetic precipitation modeling derived from empirical models of field-aligned wave power across a wide-swath of local-time sectors. However, such modeling could not explain the intense, relativistic electron precipitation observed on the nightside. Therefore, this study aims to additionally consider the contributions of three modifications – wave obliquity, frequency spectrum, and local plasma density – to explain this discrepancy on the nightside. By incorporating these effects into both test particle simulations and quasi-linear diffusion modeling, we find that realistic implementations of each individual modification result in only slight changes to the electron precipitation spectrum. However, these modifications, when combined, enable more accurate modeling of ELFIN-observed spectra. In particular, a significant reduction in plasma density enables lower frequency waves, oblique, or even quasi-field aligned waves to resonate with near $\sim1$ MeV electrons closer to the equator. We demonstrate that the levels of modification required to accurately reproduce the nightside spectra of whistler-mode wave-driven relativistic electron precipitation match empirical expectations, and should therefore be included in future radiation belt modeling.
The "Student Information Management System" is prepared or operates to maintain the records of student in school as well as in college. Student Information Management System deals with the all the activities done by computers such as registration admission process online , and staff and class management etc all these process are handled by the computer management system. The student record can be maintained online for the distance accessible to the entire student and their parents. Without the student management system managing and maintaining the details student is tedious job for any organization. Student information system will store all the detailed of the students including their background information, educational qualifications, Personal details and all the information related to their resume. Suppose we have 1000 of student from this we have to search a particular student we know the name of the student. In a manual system it is a tedious task through we know the name of student but using the module we can easily search the student by specifying the name of student in the search criteria. Thus module will help the administrator in searching the student with the various criteria. This student management system also contained the registration module and account management. This module will help the student get registered from anywhere if the internet is present. This module really simplifies the works on paper registration. Also after successful registration the user can update information and changed their password as when required This student management system also contained the user module. This module will help administrator enabling and disable a user account and change their password when they required.

Daniel Jensen

and 3 more

One of the outstanding questions in lightning research is how dart leaders (also called recoil leaders or K-leaders) initiate and develop during a lightning flash. Dart leaders travel quickly (106-107 m/s) along previously ionized channels and occur intermittently in the later stage of a flash. We have recently reported some insights into dart leader initiation and development based on our BIMAP-3D observations. In this presentation we will expand on that work by combining observations and modeling to try to understand the observed dart leader behaviors. BIMAP-3D consists of two broadband interferometric mapping and polarization (BIMAP) systems that are separated by 11.5km at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each station maps the lightning VHF sources in a 2D space, and the combination of the 2-station measurements provides a detailed 3D source map. A fast antenna is also included at each station for electric field change measurements. Our previously reported observations suggest dart leaders commonly exhibit an initial acceleration, followed by a more gradual deceleration to a stop. We also modeled the dart leader electric field change with a simple configuration of two point-charges, finding that the modeled tip charge increased in magnitude during the initial acceleration in some simple cases. We now employ a more sophisticated model to better understand the distribution of charge along the dart leader channel, and the background electric field in which the dart leader develops.Presented at the AGU 2023 Fall Meeting

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Ali Sam

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Depression severity can be classified into distinct phases based on the Beck depression inventory (BDI) test scores, a subjective questionnaire. However, quantitative assessment of depression may be attained through the examination and categorization of electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Spiking neural networks (SNNs), as the third generation of neural networks, incorporate biologically realistic algorithms, making them ideal for mimicking internal brain activities while processing EEG signals. This study introduces a novel framework that for the first time, combines an SNN architecture and a long short-term memory (LSTM) structure to model the brainâ\euro™s underlying structures during different stages of depression and effectively classify individual depression levels using raw EEG signals. By employing a brain-inspired SNN model, our research provides fresh perspectives and advances knowledge of the neurological mechanisms underlying different levels of depression. The methodology employed in this study includes the utilization of the synaptic time dependent plasticity (STDP) learning rule within a 3-dimensional braintemplate structured SNN model. Furthermore, it encompasses the tasks of classifying and predicting individual outcomes, visually representing the structural alterations in the brain linked to the anticipated outcomes, and offering interpretations of the findings. Notably, our method achieves exceptional accuracy in classification, with average rates of 98% and 96% for eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. These results significantly outperform state-of-the-art deep learning methods.

Sakshi Mishra

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Developing aerial robots that can both safely navigate and execute assigned mission without any human intervention â\euro“ i.e., fully autonomous aerial mobility of passengers and goods â\euro“ is the larger vision that guides the research, design, and development efforts in the aerial autonomy space. However, it is highly challenging to concurrently operationalize all types of aerial vehicles that are operating fully autonomously sharing the airspace. Full autonomy of the aerial transportation sector includes several aspects, such as design of the technology that powers the vehicles, operations of multi-agent fleets, and process of certification that meets stringent safety requirements of aviation sector. Thereby, Autonomous Advanced Aerial Mobility is still a vague term and its consequences for researchers and professionals are ambiguous. To address this gap, we present a comprehensive perspective on the emerging field of autonomous advanced aerial mobility, which involves the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) aircraft for various applications, such as urban air mobility, package delivery, and surveillance. The article proposes a scalable and extensible autonomy framework consisting of four main blocks: sensing, perception, planning, and controls. Furthermore, the article discusses the challenges and opportunities in multi-agent fleet operations and management, as well as the testing, validation, and certification aspects of autonomous aerial systems. Finally, the article explores the potential of monolithic models for aerial autonomy and analyzes their advantages and limitations. The perspective aims to provide a holistic picture of the autonomous advanced aerial mobility field and its future directions.

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