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Astrid Kruitwagen

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The invasion of a novel host species can create a mismatch in host choice and offspring survival (performance) when native parasitoids attempt to exploit the invasive host without being able to circumvent its resistance mechanisms. Invasive hosts can therefore act as evolutionary trap reducing parasitoids’ fitness and this may eventually lead to their extinction. Yet, escape from the trap can occur when parasitoids evolve behavioural avoidance or a physiological strategy compatible with the trap host, resulting in either host-range expansion or a complete host-shift. We developed an individual based model to investigate which conditions promote parasitoids to evolve behavioural preference that matches their performance, including host-trap avoidance, and which conditions lead to adaptations to the unsuitable hosts. One important aspect of these conditions was reduced host survival during incompatible interaction, where a failed attempt by a parasitoid resulted in host killing. This non-reproductive host mortality had a strong influence on the likelihood of establishment of novel host-parasitoid relationship. Killing unsuitable hosts can constrain adaptation under conditions which in fact promoted adaptation when parasitoids would leave the trap host unharmed and survive parasitoid attack. Moreover, our model revealed that host-search efficiency and genetic variation in host-preference play a key role in the likelihood that parasitoids will include the suboptimal host in their host range, or will evolve behavioural avoidance resulting in specialization and host-range conservation, respectively. Hence, invasive species might change the evolutionarily trajectory of native parasitoid species, which is important for predicting biocontrol ability of native parasitoids towards novel hosts.

Ying Gao

and 4 more

Sex is one of the important factors affecting gut microbiota. As key predators in agro-forestry ecosystem, many spider species show dramatically different activity habits and nutritional requirements between female and male. However, how sex affects gut microbiota of spiders is still unclear. Therefore, in this study, the compositions and diversities of gut bacteria, based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, were compared between female and male Pardosa astrigera. We found that bacterial richness indices (P < 0.05) in female were significantly lower than male, meanwhile, β-diversity showed significantly different between female and male (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of Actinobacteriota and Rhodococcus (belongs to Actinobacteria) were significantly higher in female than male (P < 0.05). Whereas, the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Acinetobacter (belongs to Proteobacteria), Ruminococcus and Fusicatenibacter (all belong to Firmicutes), were significantly higher in male than female (P < 0.05). The results of PICRUSt2 showed that amino acid and lipid metabolisms were significantly higher in female than male (P < 0.05), whereas glycan biosynthesis and metabolism was significantly higher in male than female (P < 0.05). Our results imply that sexual variation is a crucial factor in shaping gut bacterial community in P. astrigera. Male P. astrigera dispersed more widely than the female hence the male had a higher bacterial diversity. While the distinct differences of bacterial composition mainly due to their different nutritional and energy requirements.

Guillaume Domain

and 11 more

Introduction: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is an alternative to oral anticoagulant (OAC) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and contraindication to long-term OAC. Combined strategy with percutaneous LAAC at the same time of other cardiac structural or electrophysiological procedure has emerged as an alternative to staged strategy. Aim: To describe our experience of combined LAAC procedures using Watchman™ devices. Method: All patients with combined LAAC procedure using Watchman™ (WN) devices performed from 2016-2021 were included. The primary safety endpoint was a composite of periprocedural complications and adverse events during follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoint included strokes, systemic embolisms, major bleeding, and cardiovascular death. Results: Since 2016, among the 157 patients who underwent LAAC using WN devices, 16 underwent a combined strategy: 6 TEMVR (37%), 6 typical atrial flutter ablation (37%), 2 LP implantation (13%) and 2 atrial fibrillation ablation (13%). The WN device was successfully implanted in 98% and 100% for single and combined LAAC respectively (p = 0.63). Median follow-up was 13 months (IQR 25/75 3/24) in the whole cohort. Device related complications occurred in 6 out of 141 patients (4%) who underwent single LAAC and in no (0/16) patient in the combined LAAC procedure (p=ns). The procedural related complications did not differ significantly between groups (5% vs 12%, respectively in the single and combined group, p=0.1). Conclusion: Combined procedure combining LAAC using the Watchman™ devices and one other structural or electrophysiological procedure is safe and effective. Larger series are needed to confirm these results.

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