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Robert Desharnais

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1. Competition from invasive species is an increasing threat to biodiversity. In Southern California, the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus, WGS) is facing increasing competition from the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger, FS), an invasive congener. 2. We used spectral methods to analyze 140 consecutive monthly censuses of WGS and FS within a 11.3 ha section of the California Botanic Garden. Variation in the numbers for both species and their synchrony was distributed across long timescales (> 15 months). 3. After filtering out annual changes, concurrent mean monthly temperatures from nearby Ontario Airport (ONT) yielded a spectrum with a large semiannual peak and significant spectral power at long timescales (> 30 months). Squirrel-temperature cospectra showed significant negative covariation at long timescales (> 35 months) for WGS and smaller significant negative peaks at 6 months for both species. 4. Simulations from a Lotka-Volterra model of two competing species indicates that the risk of extinction for the weaker competitor increases quickly as environmental noise shifts from short to long timescales. 5. We analyzed the timescales of fluctuations in detrended mean annual temperatures for the time period 1915-2014 from 1218 locations across the continental USA. In the last two decades, significant shifts from short timescales to long timescales have occurred, changing from less than 3 years to 4-6 years. 6. Our results indicate that (i) population fluctuations in co-occurring native and invasive tree squirrels are synchronous, occur over long timescales, and may be driven by fluctuations in environmental conditions; (ii) long timescale population fluctuations increase the risk of extinction in competing species, especially for the inferior competitor; and (iii) the timescales of interannual environmental fluctuations may be increasing from recent historical values. These results have broad implications for the impact of climate change on the maintenance of biodiversity.

Hyungtaek Jung

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Storing and manipulating Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) file formats for understanding biological phenomena is an essential but difficult task in the life sciences. Yet, most methods for analysing NGS data require complex command-line tools in high-performance computing (HPC) or web-based servers and have not yet been implemented in comprehensive, easy-to-use software. Here we present easyfm (easy file manipulation), a free standalone Graphical User Interface (GUI) software with Python support that can be used to facilitate the rapid discovery of target sequences (or user’s interest) in NGS datasets for novice users (more accessible to biologists). It enables them to perform end-to-end reproducible data analyses using a desktop application (Windows, Mac and Linux). Unlike existing tools, the GUI-based easyfm is not dependent on any HPC system and can be operated without an internet connection. For user-friendliness and convenience, easyfm was developed with four work modules and a secondary GUI window, covering different aspects of NGS data analysis, including post-processing, filtering, format conversion, generating results, real-time log, and help. In combination with the executable tools (BLAST+ and BLAT) and Python, easyfm allows the user to set analysis parameters, select/extract regions of interest, examine the input and output results, and convert to a wide range of file formats. To help augment the functionality of existing web-based and command-line tools, easyfm, a self-contained program, comes with extensive documentation ( This specific benefit allows easyfm to seamlessly integrate visual and interactive representations of NGS files, supporting a wider scope of bioinformatics applications in the life sciences.

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