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The three dominant processes contributing to runoff as proposed by the Dunne diagram are Hortonian overland flow (HOF), Dunne overland flow (DOF) and subsurface storm flow (SSF). Using a theoretical perspective, we investigate the impact of climate, soil, topography and vegetation on catchment water balance and the probability distribution of the travel times of each runoff generation component in respect of the connected instantaneous response function (CIRF) including the interaction of a partial contributing area connecting to the outlet. A simple distributed hydrologic model is used to capture the effect of the catchment response and to estimate the CIRFs under different possible integration of combined effect of climate, soil, topography and vegetation. A set of dimensionless similarity parameters represent catchment functions and provide a quantitative explanation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Behavioral catchments are defined from the empirical range of the Budyko curve and mainly compatible to the physical relationship as illustrated in the Dunne diagram. The results consistent with the Dunne diagram are: (1) DOF and SSF dominates in humid for behavioral sand and silt catchments, (2) HOF dominates in arid for behavioral silt and clay catchments. Inconsistent results are: (1) SSF dominates in arid for behavioral sand, silt and clay catchments, (2) HOF dominates in humid for behavioral clay catchment and (3) no dominant HOF for behavioral sand catchment. For HOF and DOF dominates, the distribution of CIRFs can be grouped into similar shapes, which depend on the relative contribution of hillslope scale and catchment scale. For SSF behavioral catchments, the shape of the CIRFs depends on the dryness index. The combined catchment CIRFs of mean travel time for runoff responses consists with the higher first peak from the HOF and/or DOF and the second peak from the SSF.

Rachel Foster

and 9 more

Invasive Non-Native Species (INNS) can co-transport externally and internally other organisms including viruses, bacteria and other eukaryotes (including metazoan parasites), collectively referred to as the symbiome. These symbiotic organisms include pathogens, a small minority of which are subject to surveillance and regulatory control, but most of which are currently unscrutinised and/or unknown. The (putatively) pathogenic symbionts co-transported by an INNS host may be latent or associated with asymptomatic infection and unable to cause disease in the INNS, but may be opportunistic pathogens of other hosts, causing impact to one or more hosts in their new range. These pathogens potentially pose diverse risks to other species, with implications for increased epidemiological risk to agriculture and aquaculture, wildlife/ecosystems, and human health (zoonotic diseases). Aquatic INNS and their symbionts have many introduction pathways, including commodity and trade (releases, escapes, contaminant), transport (stowaway), and dispersal (corridor, unaided). The risks and impacts arising from co-transported pathogens, including other symbionts of unknown pathogenic virulence, remain largely unexplored, unlegislated, and difficult to identify and quantify. Here, we propose a workflow to determine any known and potential pathogens of aquatic INNS. This workflow acts as a prerequisite for assessing the nature and risk posed by co-transported symbionts of INNS. A better understanding of co-transported organisms, the risks they pose and their impact, is necessary to inform policy and INNS risk assessments. This leap in evidence will be instrumental to devise an appropriate set of statutory responsibilities with respect to these symbionts, and to underpin new and more effective legislative processes relating to the disease screening and risk assessment of INNS.

Frederico Friedrich

and 12 more

Seong-Eun Kim

and 2 more

Epoxy fatty acids (EFAs), which exist in the human body, are signaling molecules that maintain homeostasis. They are involved in anti-inflammation and are precursors of dihydroxy fatty acids. EFAs derived from the C20 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid by lipoxygenases, such as 5,6-epoxy-7E,9E,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid and 8,9-epoxy-5Z,10E,12E,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid, are found in humans and mice, respectively. However, EFAs derived from C18 PUFAs by lipoxygenases have not been identified to date. In this study, the putative lipoxygenase gene of Spingopyxis macrogoltabida was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The activity and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of the recombinant enzyme were the highest for linoleic acid among the C18 PUFAs, including also α-linolenic acid and γ-linolenic acid. The product obtained from the conversion of linoleic acid by the putative lipoxygenase was identified as 9-hydroxy-10E,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (9-HODE) by high-performance liquid chromatography using 9-HODE and 13-hydroxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) standards. These results indicate that the enzyme is a linoleate 9-lipoxygenase. The enzyme converted linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and γ-linolenic acid into 9-HODE, 13-hydroxy-9Z,11E,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid, and 9-hydroxy-6Z,10E,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme also converted the three C18 PUFAs into 9,10-epoxy-11E,13E-octadecadienoic acid, 12,13-epoxy-8E,10E,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid, and 9,10-epoxy-6Z,11E,13E-octadecatrienoic acid, respectively, which were identified as new EFAs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biosynthesis of EFAs from C18 PUFAs via a lipoxygenase.

Sefa Aslan

and 1 more

Aim: In this study, we evaluated the presence of sarcopenia multidimensionally in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical, ultrasonographic and biochemical parameters, and in this respect, it was aimed to investigate the relation between OA and sarcopenia and to identify the most practical, easily accessible and inexpensive method for investigating sarcopenia.Materials and methods: 102 patients with clinical and radiological diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis and 33 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The detailed musculoskeletal system examination of the patients included in the study was carried out by a single physician, and blood sample tests were recorded .Dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is used to measure Body composition parameters and muscle mass measurements, isometric muscle strength evaluations, handgrip strength and gait speeds for diagnosis of sarcopenia. Short-form -36 (SF-36) The Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the International Physical Assessment Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D scale) were administered to every patient as outcome measures.Results: Body composition parameter results showed that sarcopenic patients had statistically lower values as fat mass, lean body mass and skeletal muscle index (p <0.001, p= 0.001, p <0.001, respectively) than those of non-sarcopenic and control group. It was determined that body composition values measured with DEXA, ultrasonographic measures, isokinetic muscle strength assessment, handgrip strength and gait speed had predictive values for sarcopenia. Conclusion: We found that patients with sarcopenic OA were older, weaker, undernourished, and restricted in their level of physical activity in the study in which we identified sarcopenia as approximately 12% in patients with osteoarthritis. Among the methods of determining sarcopenia, ultrasound becomes prominent with its practical, cheap and easily accessible features. We think that our results will increase the awareness of the presence of sarcopenia in OA patients.

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Mohammed Al-Sadawi

and 7 more

Abstract: Background: This meta-analysis assessed the relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and echocardiographic parameters of diastolic dysfunction (DD), which are used in the assessment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). Methods: We searched the databases including Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and EBSCO CINAHL from inception up to December 26th, 2020. The search was not restricted to time, publication status or language. Comparisons were made between patients with OSA, diagnosed in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) or home sleep apnea testing (HSAT), and patients without OSA in relation to established markers of diastolic dysfunction. Results: Primary search identified 2512 studies. A total of 18 studies including 2509 participants were included. The two groups were free of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Significant structural changes were observed between the two groups. Patients with OSA exhibited greater LAVI (3.94 CI [0.8, 7.07]; p=0.000) and left ventricular mass index (11.10 CI [2.56,19.65]; p=0.000) as compared to control group. The presence of OSA was also associated with more prolonged DT (10.44 ms CI [0.71,20.16]; p=0.04), IVRT (7.85 ms CI[4.48, 11.22]; p=0.000), and lower E/A ratio (-0.62 CI [-1,-0.24]; p=0.001) suggestive of early DD. The E/e’ ratio (0.94 CI[0.44, 1.45]; p=0.000) was increased. Conclusion: An association between OSA and echocardiographic parameters of DD was detected that was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. OSA may be independently associated with DD perhaps due to higher LV mass. Investigating the role of CPAP therapy in reversing or ameliorating diastolic dysfunction is recommended.

Huseyin Kazan

and 6 more

Objective: To investigate the factors, especially preoperative urinalysis, predicting postoperative early infection after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in 1-2 cm renal stones. Methods: Of the 642 patients who underwent RIRS between September 2013 and July 2019, 289 patients with a total stone size of 1-2 cm were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups as with and without postoperative urinary tract infection. The demographic data and perioperative findings of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. Sterile urine cultures were obtained in all patients during the preoperative 30-day period and urine analysis values were included in the data. Results: Urinary system infection (UTI) was seen in 20 (6.9%) of 289 patients. Patient demographics were similar between groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of stone diameter and stone localization (median diameter 13.5 vs 15, p=0.285). Patients with postoperative UTI had a higher rate of UTI history (55% vs 20.5%, p=0.000) and longer operative times (62.5 vs 60 min., p=0.008). Rate of pyuria, leukocyte esterase and nitrite positivity were observed more frequently in patients with postoperative UTI. In multivariate analysis, UTI history, prolonged operative time, and nitrite positivity were found to be independent risk factors for postoperative UTI. Conclusion: Nitrite positivity in preoperative urinanalysis, history of UTI and prolonged operation time are the factors that predict the postoperative infection in RIRS for stones between 1-2 cm.

Gunter Sturm

and 38 more

Background: There is controversy whether taking β-blockers or ACE inhibitors (ACEI) is a risk factor for more severe systemic insect sting reactions (SSR) and whether it increases the number or severity of adverse events (AE) during venom immunotherapy (VIT). Methods: In this open, prospective, observational, multicenter trial, we recruited patients with a history of a SSR and indication for VIT. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether patients taking β-blockers or ACEI show more systemic AE during VIT compared to patients without such treatment. Results: In total, 1,425 patients were enrolled and VIT was performed in 1,342 patients. Of all patients included, 388 (27.2%) took antihypertensive (AHT) drugs (10.4% took β-blockers, 11.9% ACEI, 5.0% β-blockers and ACEI). Only 5.6% of patients under AHT treatment experienced systemic AE during VIT as compared with 7.4% of patients without these drugs (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.43–1.22, p=0.25). The severity of the initial sting reaction was not affected by the intake of β-blockers or ACEI (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.89–1.46, p=0.29). In total, 210 (17.7%) patients were re-stung during VIT and 191 (91.0%) tolerated the sting without systemic symptoms. Of the 19 patients with VIT treatment failure, 4 took β-blockers, none an ACEI. Conclusions: This trial provides robust evidence that taking β-blockers or ACEI does neither increase the frequency of systemic AE during VIT nor aggravate SSR. Moreover, results suggest that these drugs do not impair effectiveness of VIT. (Funded by Medical University of Graz, Austria; Clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT04269629)

Nazanin Kermani

and 12 more

Background. Patients with severe asthma may have a greater risk of dying from COVID-19 disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the enzyme proteases, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and FURIN, are needed for viral attachment and invasion into host cells. Methods. We examined microarray mRNA expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN in sputum, bronchial brushing and bronchial biopsies of the European U-BIOPRED cohort. Clinical parameters and molecular phenotypes, including asthma severity, sputum inflammatory cells, lung functions, oral corticosteroid (OCS) use, and transcriptomic-associated clusters, were examined in relation to gene expression levels. Results. ACE2 levels were significantly increased in sputum of severe asthma compared to mild-moderate asthma. In multivariate analyses, sputum ACE2 levels were positively associated with OCS use and male gender. Sputum FURIN levels were significantly related to neutrophils (%) and the presence of severe asthma. In bronchial brushing samples, TMPRSS2 levels were positively associated with male gender and body mass index, whereas FURIN levels with male gender and blood neutrophils. In bronchial biopsies, TMPRSS2 levels were positively related to blood neutrophils. The neutrophilic molecular phenotype characterised by high inflammasome activation expressed significantly higher FURIN levels in sputum than the eosinophilic Type 2-high or the pauci-granulocytic oxidative phosphorylation phenotypes. Conclusion. Levels of ACE2 and FURIN may differ by clinical or molecular phenotypes of asthma. Sputum FURIN expression levels were strongly associated with neutrophilic inflammation and with inflammasome activation. This might indicate the potential for a greater morbidity and mortality outcome from SARS-CoV-2 infection in neutrophilic severe asthma.

Mehmet Pehlivaoğlu

and 5 more

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of intracavitary levobupivacaine infusion diluted with locally applied isotonic solution for pain control in cystoscopy. Methods: Included in this study are 100 patients who had previously undergone transurethral tumor resection for bladder tumor and were followed up by cystoscopy. The patients were randomized into five groups (n = 20). In the first, second, third, and fourth groups, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mL of levobupivacaine HCl (5.0 mg/mL) were mixed with 26, 24, 22, and 20 mL of isotonic solution, respectively. Hence, the total mixture was 30 mL for each group. The fifth group was the control group. In this group, the standard method commonly used in most clinics was utilized. That is, a gel containing Cathejell-2% lidocaine (25 mg lidocaine) was applied. Cystoscopic interventions were performed with a 17.5 Fr rigid cystoscope and 0°, 30°, and 70° lens. During cystoscopy and 30 min later, the pain status of patients was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and patient satisfaction was questioned. Results: The mean VAS score during and after the cystoscopy procedure was significantly lower in the levobupivacaine groups compared to the lidocaine group. In addition, patient satisfaction in the levobupivacaine groups was significantly higher than in the lidocaine group. No drug-related side-effects were observed in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, levobupivacaine is a more effective drug than lidocaine alone to control pain during cystoscopy. The use of levobupivacaine is recommended to prevent possible complications of general anesthesia by eliminating the need for the aforementioned as well as its cost-saving advantage.

Yanhui Dong

and 4 more

Groundwater age is often used to estimate groundwater recharge through a simplified analytical approach. This estimated recharge is thought to be representative of the mean recharge between the point of entry and the sampling point. However, given the complexity in actual recharge, whether the mean recharge is reasonable is still unclear. This study examined the validity of the method to estimate long-term average groundwater recharge and the possibility of obtaining reasonable spatial recharge pattern. We first validated our model in producing reasonable age distributions using a constant flux boundary condition. We then generated different flow fields and age patterns by using various spatially-varying flux boundary conditions with different magnitudes and wavelengths. Groundwater recharge was estimated and analyzed afterwards using the method at the spatial scale. We illustrated the main findings with a field example in the end. Our results suggest that we can estimate long-term average groundwater recharge with 10% error in many parts of an aquifer. The size of these areas decreases with the increase in both the amplitude and the wavelength. The chance of obtaining a reasonable groundwater recharge is higher if an age sample is collected from the middle of an aquifer and at downstream areas. Our study also indicates that the method can also be used to estimate local groundwater recharge if age samples are collected close to the water table. However, care must be taken to determine groundwater age regardless of conditions.

Xinyi Guan

and 4 more

Adriana Bustamante

and 3 more

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