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Michael Weekes

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Nick K. Jones1,2*, Lucy Rivett1,2*, Chris Workman3, Mark Ferris3, Ashley Shaw1, Cambridge COVID-19 Collaboration1,4, Paul J. Lehner1,4, Rob Howes5, Giles Wright3, Nicholas J. Matheson1,4,6¶, Michael P. Weekes1,7¶1 Cambridge University NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK2 Clinical Microbiology & Public Health Laboratory, Public Health England, Cambridge, UK3 Occupational Health and Wellbeing, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK4 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK5 Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre and AstraZeneca, Anne Mclaren Building, Cambridge, UK6 NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK7 Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK*Joint first authorship¶Joint last authorshipCorrespondence: [email protected] UK has initiated mass COVID-19 immunisation, with healthcare workers (HCWs) given early priority because of the potential for workplace exposure and risk of onward transmission to patients. The UK’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended maximising the number of people vaccinated with first doses at the expense of early booster vaccinations, based on single dose efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 disease.1-3At the time of writing, three COVID-19 vaccines have been granted emergency use authorisation in the UK, including the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). A vital outstanding question is whether this vaccine prevents or promotes asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, rather than symptomatic COVID-19 disease, because sub-clinical infection following vaccination could continue to drive transmission. This is especially important because many UK HCWs have received this vaccine, and nosocomial COVID-19 infection has been a persistent problem.Through the implementation of a 24 h-turnaround PCR-based comprehensive HCW screening programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT), we previously demonstrated the frequent presence of pauci- and asymptomatic infection amongst HCWs during the UK’s first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.4 Here, we evaluate the effect of first-dose BNT162b2 vaccination on test positivity rates and cycle threshold (Ct) values in the asymptomatic arm of our programme, which now offers weekly screening to all staff.Vaccination of HCWs at CUHNFT began on 8th December 2020, with mass vaccination from 8th January 2021. Here, we analyse data from the two weeks spanning 18thto 31st January 2021, during which: (a) the prevalence of COVID-19 amongst HCWs remained approximately constant; and (b) we screened comparable numbers of vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Over this period, 4,408 (week 1) and 4,411 (week 2) PCR tests were performed from individuals reporting well to work. We stratified HCWs <12 days or > 12 days post-vaccination because this was the point at which protection against symptomatic infection began to appear in phase III clinical trial.226/3,252 (0·80%) tests from unvaccinated HCWs were positive (Ct<36), compared to 13/3,535 (0·37%) from HCWs <12 days post-vaccination and 4/1,989 (0·20%) tests from HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination (p=0·023 and p=0·004, respectively; Fisher’s exact test, Figure). This suggests a four-fold decrease in the risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination, compared to unvaccinated HCWs, with an intermediate effect amongst HCWs <12 days post-vaccination.A marked reduction in infections was also seen when analyses were repeated with: (a) inclusion of HCWs testing positive through both the symptomatic and asymptomatic arms of the programme (56/3,282 (1·71%) unvaccinated vs 8/1,997 (0·40%) ≥12 days post-vaccination, 4·3-fold reduction, p=0·00001); (b) inclusion of PCR tests which were positive at the limit of detection (Ct>36, 42/3,268 (1·29%) vs 15/2,000 (0·75%), 1·7-fold reduction, p=0·075); and (c) extension of the period of analysis to include six weeks from December 28th to February 7th 2021 (113/14,083 (0·80%) vs 5/4,872 (0·10%), 7·8-fold reduction, p=1x10-9). In addition, the median Ct value of positive tests showed a non-significant trend towards increase between unvaccinated HCWs and HCWs > 12 days post-vaccination (23·3 to 30·3, Figure), suggesting that samples from vaccinated individuals had lower viral loads.We therefore provide real-world evidence for a high level of protection against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection after a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, at a time of predominant transmission of the UK COVID-19 variant of concern 202012/01 (lineage B.1.1.7), and amongst a population with a relatively low frequency of prior infection (7.2% antibody positive).5This work was funded by a Wellcome Senior Clinical Research Fellowship to MPW (108070/Z/15/Z), a Wellcome Principal Research Fellowship to PJL (210688/Z/18/Z), and an MRC Clinician Scientist Fellowship (MR/P008801/1) and NHSBT workpackage (WPA15-02) to NJM. Funding was also received from Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust and the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. We also acknowledge contributions from all staff at CUHNFT Occupational Health and Wellbeing and the Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre.

Guangming Wang

and 4 more

Tam Hunt

and 1 more

Tam Hunt [1], Jonathan SchoolerUniversity of California Santa Barbara Synchronization, harmonization, vibrations, or simply resonance in its most general sense seems to have an integral relationship with consciousness itself. One of the possible “neural correlates of consciousness” in mammalian brains is a combination of gamma, beta and theta synchrony. More broadly, we see similar kinds of resonance patterns in living and non-living structures of many types. What clues can resonance provide about the nature of consciousness more generally? This paper provides an overview of resonating structures in the fields of neuroscience, biology and physics and attempts to coalesce these data into a solution to what we see as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem, which is generally known as the “combination problem” or the “binding problem.” The combination problem asks: how do micro-conscious entities combine into a higher-level macro-consciousness? The proposed solution in the context of mammalian consciousness suggests that a shared resonance is what allows different parts of the brain to achieve a phase transition in the speed and bandwidth of information flows between the constituent parts. This phase transition allows for richer varieties of consciousness to arise, with the character and content of that consciousness in each moment determined by the particular set of constituent neurons. We also offer more general insights into the ontology of consciousness and suggest that consciousness manifests as a relatively smooth continuum of increasing richness in all physical processes, distinguishing our view from emergentist materialism. We refer to this approach as a (general) resonance theory of consciousness and offer some responses to Chalmers’ questions about the different kinds of “combination problem.”  At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync…. [T]hese feats of synchrony occur spontaneously, almost as if nature has an eerie yearning for order. Steven Strogatz, Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos in the Universe, Nature and Daily Life (2003) If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.Nikola Tesla (1942) I.               Introduction Is there an “easy part” and a “hard part” to the Hard Problem of consciousness? In this paper, we suggest that there is. The harder part is arriving at a philosophical position with respect to the relationship of matter and mind. This paper is about the “easy part” of the Hard Problem but we address the “hard part” briefly in this introduction.  We have both arrived, after much deliberation, at the position of panpsychism or panexperientialism (all matter has at least some associated mind/experience and vice versa). This is the view that all things and processes have both mental and physical aspects. Matter and mind are two sides of the same coin.  Panpsychism is one of many possible approaches that addresses the “hard part” of the Hard Problem. We adopt this position for all the reasons various authors have listed (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1997, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017). This first step is particularly powerful if we adopt the Whiteheadian version of panpsychism (Whitehead 1929).  Reaching a position on this fundamental question of how mind relates to matter must be based on a “weight of plausibility” approach, rather than on definitive evidence, because establishing definitive evidence with respect to the presence of mind/experience is difficult. We must generally rely on examining various “behavioral correlates of consciousness” in judging whether entities other than ourselves are conscious – even with respect to other humans—since the only consciousness we can know with certainty is our own. Positing that matter and mind are two sides of the same coin explains the problem of consciousness insofar as it avoids the problems of emergence because under this approach consciousness doesn’t emerge. Consciousness is, rather, always present, at some level, even in the simplest of processes, but it “complexifies” as matter complexifies, and vice versa. Consciousness starts very simple and becomes more complex and rich under the right conditions, which in our proposed framework rely on resonance mechanisms. Matter and mind are two sides of the coin. Neither is primary; they are coequal.  We acknowledge the challenges of adopting this perspective, but encourage readers to consider the many compelling reasons to consider it that are reviewed elsewhere (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1998, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017, Schooler, Schooler, & Hunt, 2011; Schooler, 2015).  Taking a position on the overarching ontology is the first step in addressing the Hard Problem. But this leads to the related questions: at what level of organization does consciousness reside in any particular process? Is a rock conscious? A chair? An ant? A bacterium? Or are only the smaller constituents, such as atoms or molecules, of these entities conscious? And if there is some degree of consciousness even in atoms and molecules, as panpsychism suggests (albeit of a very rudimentary nature, an important point to remember), how do these micro-conscious entities combine into the higher-level and obvious consciousness we witness in entities like humans and other mammals?  This set of questions is known as the “combination problem,” another now-classic problem in the philosophy of mind, and is what we describe here as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem. Our characterization of this part of the problem as “easy”[2] is, of course, more than a little tongue in cheek. The authors have discussed frequently with each other what part of the Hard Problem should be labeled the easier part and which the harder part. Regardless of the labels we choose, however, this paper focuses on our suggested solution to the combination problem.  Various solutions to the combination problem have been proposed but none have gained widespread acceptance. This paper further elaborates a proposed solution to the combination problem that we first described in Hunt 2011 and Schooler, Hunt, and Schooler 2011. The proposed solution rests on the idea of resonance, a shared vibratory frequency, which can also be called synchrony or field coherence. We will generally use resonance and “sync,” short for synchrony, interchangeably in this paper. We describe the approach as a general resonance theory of consciousness or just “general resonance theory” (GRT). GRT is a field theory of consciousness wherein the various specific fields associated with matter and energy are the seat of conscious awareness.  A summary of our approach appears in Appendix 1.  All things in our universe are constantly in motion, in process. Even objects that appear to be stationary are in fact vibrating, oscillating, resonating, at specific frequencies. So all things are actually processes. Resonance is a specific type of motion, characterized by synchronized oscillation between two states.  An interesting phenomenon occurs when different vibrating processes come into proximity: they will often start vibrating together at the same frequency. They “sync up,” sometimes in ways that can seem mysterious, and allow for richer and faster information and energy flows (Figure 1 offers a schematic). Examining this phenomenon leads to potentially deep insights about the nature of consciousness in both the human/mammalian context but also at a deeper ontological level.

Susanne Schilling*^

and 9 more

Jessica mead

and 6 more

The construct of wellbeing has been criticised as a neoliberal construction of western individualism that ignores wider systemic issues including increasing burden of chronic disease, widening inequality, concerns over environmental degradation and anthropogenic climate change. While these criticisms overlook recent developments, there remains a need for biopsychosocial models that extend theoretical grounding beyond individual wellbeing, incorporating overlapping contextual issues relating to community and environment. Our first GENIAL model \cite{Kemp_2017} provided a more expansive view of pathways to longevity in the context of individual health and wellbeing, emphasising bidirectional links to positive social ties and the impact of sociocultural factors. In this paper, we build on these ideas and propose GENIAL 2.0, focusing on intersecting individual-community-environmental contributions to health and wellbeing, and laying an evidence-based, theoretical framework on which future research and innovative therapeutic innovations could be based. We suggest that our transdisciplinary model of wellbeing - focusing on individual, community and environmental contributions to personal wellbeing - will help to move the research field forward. In reconceptualising wellbeing, GENIAL 2.0 bridges the gap between psychological science and population health health systems, and presents opportunities for enhancing the health and wellbeing of people living with chronic conditions. Implications for future generations including the very survival of our species are discussed.  

Mark Ferris

and 14 more

IntroductionConsistent with World Health Organization (WHO) advice [1], UK Infection Protection Control guidance recommends that healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should use fluid resistant surgical masks type IIR (FRSMs) as respiratory protective equipment (RPE), unless aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) are being undertaken or are likely, when a filtering face piece 3 (FFP3) respirator should be used [2]. In a recent update, an FFP3 respirator is recommended if “an unacceptable risk of transmission remains following rigorous application of the hierarchy of control” [3]. Conversely, guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19 should use an N95 or higher level respirator [4]. WHO guidance suggests that a respirator, such as FFP3, may be used for HCWs in the absence of AGPs if availability or cost is not an issue [1].A recent systematic review undertaken for PHE concluded that: “patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are breathing, talking or coughing generate both respiratory droplets and aerosols, but FRSM (and where required, eye protection) are considered to provide adequate staff protection” [5]. Nevertheless, FFP3 respirators are more effective in preventing aerosol transmission than FRSMs, and observational data suggests that they may improve protection for HCWs [6]. It has therefore been suggested that respirators should be considered as a means of affording the best available protection [7], and some organisations have decided to provide FFP3 (or equivalent) respirators to HCWs caring for COVID-19 patients, despite a lack of mandate from local or national guidelines [8].Data from the HCW testing programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT) during the first wave of the UK severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic indicated a higher incidence of infection amongst HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19, compared with those who did not [9]. Subsequent studies have confirmed this observation [10, 11]. This disparity persisted at CUHNFT in December 2020, despite control measures consistent with PHE guidance and audits indicating good compliance. The CUHNFT infection control committee therefore implemented a change of RPE for staff on “red” (COVID-19) wards from FRSMs to FFP3 respirators. In this study, we analyse the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs before and after this transition.

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Aim of the Study This study aimed to investigate the effects of the n-hexane fraction of the ethanolic seed extract of PG (NFESEPG) on hypertension induced by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. Specifically, the study examined the impact of NFESEPG on blood pressure, oxidative stress markers, NO concentration, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities, and cardiac biomarkers in hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods The study involved collecting, identifying, and processing the PG plant to obtain the ethanolic seed extract. The extract was then partitioned with solvents to isolate the n-hexane fraction. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of L-NAME for ten days, while concurrent treatment with NFESEPG at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally. Blood pressure was measured using a non-invasive tail-cuff method, and various biochemical parameters were assessed. Results Treatment with both doses of NFESEPG significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Additionally, NFESEPG administration increased NO concentration and decreased ACE and arginase activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and cardiac biomarkers in hypertensive rats. Conclusions The findings indicate that NFESEPG effectively lowered blood pressure in hypertensive rats induced by L-NAME, potentially through mechanisms involving the modulation of oxidative stress, NO bioavailability, and cardiac biomarkers. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of NFESEPG in managing hypertension and related cardiovascular complications.

Israel Fianyi

and 2 more

In the realm of traditional representation learning for Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, the prevalent approach involves leveraging large language models like BERT, GPT-2, XLNet, and others, which demonstrate their prowess when trained on extensive datasets. However, the quest for effective representation learning becomes a formidable challenge when data is scarce or costly to acquire, such as in specialised domains and low-resource languages. This challenge stems from the scarcity of suitable algorithms and the inherent difficulties in learning representations from limited data. In this study, we introduce a novel and groundbreaking technique, the Attention-sequence Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (ABiLSTM), to tackle this challenge head-on. This method amalgamates the strengths of attention mechanisms and bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks, bolstering the model’s ability to capture intricate patterns and dependencies within sequential data, particularly in scenarios involving small or constrained datasets. Through empirical analysis, we delve into the intricate dynamics of neural network architectures, specifically examining the impact of varying numbers of hidden layers and the occurrence of training errors. These aspects are scrutinised in the context of unsupervised pretraining methods, with a focus on their effectiveness in generating robust and informative representations for open relation extraction tasks. Furthermore, we propose the use of knowledge graph techniques to tackle the challenge of imbalanced data during information extraction processes. Our study demonstrates that the use of ABiLSTM yields superior results in open relation extraction tasks, even when dealing with small or limited datasets. This advancement represents a significant contribution to the fields of natural language understanding and information extraction.
The palm family is a major source of invasive woody plants because of their long history of introductions outside their native range in tropical and subtropical regions for their use as food and ornamentals. Areca triandra Roxb. Ex Buch-Ham, was introduced to Sri Lanka in 1867 through the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya has been grown as an ornamental for over a century. This study shows its naturalization in the southwest humid lowlands and is invasive. Population and reproductive characteristics were studied in Meethirigala and Yagirala Forest Reserves. In each location, stems > 1m height and crown cover were sampled in three plots of 400 m2 (20 m × 20 m) and the ground layer < 1 m height sampled through four 1 m x 1 m plots within each 400 m2 (total of 24 plots). A. triandra accounted for 56% - 66% of stems > 1 m height, 52% - 76% crown cover, and 64% - 77% of stems and seedlings in the ground layer < 1 m height. Clump formation was high with 30% - 51% having 2 - 7 stems, compared to single stems of 12% - 26%. Fruit production was prolific, each infructescence yielding 140 - 250 fruits and each clump of multiple stems producing 1 - 3 infructescence. This resulted in a total of 250 - 440 fruits per clump, translating up to 8000 fruits per 20 m × 20 m plot; bright red, fleshy fruits attracted avian and mammalian frugivores aiding seed dispersal. The palm favored disturbed forest edges, and shady understory habitats displacing native understory, suppressing native canopy regeneration. The Invasiveness Assessment Protocol indicated moderate risk from A. triandra in the wet zone, exposing vulnerability of Sri Lanka’s highly fragmented biodiverse rain forests. This emphasizes the need for urgent action of this species.

Diego Erena

and 6 more

Hanbing Yang

and 5 more

The development of internal cracks in asphalt concrete can be seen as a sign of macro crack development. To explore the influence of different loading rates on the crack resistance of panel asphalt concrete, based on the theory of fracture mechanics, DIC digital image correlation technology was used as a test method for crack propagation of specimens. SCB (Semi-circular bending)tests were carried out on panel asphalt concrete with different loading rates (0.05, 0.2, 1, 3, 5,1 0 mm/min). The effects of different loading rates on the fracture index and full-field strain of asphalt concrete were analyzed. the results showed that when the loading rate increases from 0.05 mm/min to 10mm/min, the stress intensity factor ( KIC) and fracture energy ( Gf) increase, and the crack resistance index ( CRI) shows the opposite law; With the increase of loading rate, the strain (Exx, Eyy) corresponding to the peak load gradually decreases. After reaching the peak strength, with the increase of load displacement, the crack of the sample gradually expands along the edge of the coarse aggregate at a low loading rate, and the crack penetrates the coarse aggregate at a high loading rate; There are obvious differences in crack morphology of asphalt concrete specimens under different loading rates, When the loading rate is 0.05-1 mm/min, the crack morphology is tortuously rising. When the loading rate is 3-10mm/min, the crack morphology develops almost vertically upward along the pre-crack. The results of the study can provide a reference for the development of cracks and fracture behavior of panel asphalt concrete under different loading rates.

zahra azizi

and 3 more

Breast cancer (BC) is the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide and the major cause of cancer-associated mortalities. Commonly, the primary treatment used for cancer patients is chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered an anthracycline derivative and conversant chemotherapeutic agent and one of the most influential chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition, it is among the most frequently applied drugs for BC. According to recent reports, RNA is crucial for the development of several cancers and illnesses. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) exert a particularly vital role in this respect. The current reviews demonstrate that lncRNAs can function as oncogenic and tumor suppressor and contribute to cancer development and progression. Our study addressed nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) and the effect of DOX contributing to the regulation of miR410 by NEAT1. After receiving DOX treatment, it was discovered that NEAT1 expression levels were practically decreased in human BC cells, including MDA-MB231 and MCF-7. As expected, further expression than cancer cell lines were detected in normal mammary epithelial cell MCF-10A. Simultaneously, neither the dose administration levels nor the cell lines showed any changes in the expression of miR410. Alterations in the expression level were measured by the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyzes. This indicates that DOX may affect BC lines via NEAT1, and miR410 is ineffective in this pathway. Our data confirmed that the contribution of NEAT1 in DOX treatment. Accordingly, it can be provided as a biomarker in the diagnosis and treatment of BC.

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Urbanization modifies ecosystem conditions and evolutionary processes. This includes air pollution, mostly as tropospheric ozone (O3), which contributes to the decline of urban and peri-urban forests. A notable case are fir(Abies religiosa) forests in the peripheral mountains southwest of Mexico City, which have been severely affected by O3 pollution since the 1970s. Interestingly, some young individuals exhibiting minimal O3—related damage have been observed within a zone of significant O3 exposure. Using this setting as a natural experiment, we compared asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals of similar age (≤15 years old; n = 10) using histological, metabolomic and transcriptomic approaches. Plants were sampled during days of high (170 ppb) and moderate (87 ppb) O3 concentration. Given that there have been reforestation efforts in the region, with plants from different source populations, we first confirmed that all analysed individuals clustered within the local genetic group when compared to a species-wide panel (Admixture analysis with ~1.5K SNPs). We observed thicker epidermis and more collapsed cells in the palisade parenchyma of needles from symptomatic individuals than from their asymptomatic counterparts, with differences increasing with needle age. Furthermore, symptomatic individuals exhibited lower concentrations of various terpenes (ß-pinene, ß-caryophylene oxide, α-caryophylene and ß-α-cubebene) than asymptomatic trees, as evidenced through GC-MS. Finally, transcriptomic analyses revealed differential expression for thirteen genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, plant defense, and gene regulation. Our results indicate a rapid and contrasting phenotypic response among trees, likely influenced by standing genetic variation and/or plastic mechanisms. They open the door to future evolutionary studies for understanding how O3 tolerance develops in urban environments, and how this knowledge could contribute to forest restoration.

Mohammad Rowshan

and 4 more

Channel coding plays a pivotal role in ensuring reliable communication over wireless channels. With the growing need for ultra-reliable communication in emerging wireless use cases, the significance of channel coding has amplified. Furthermore, minimizing decoding latency is crucial for critical-mission applications, while optimizing energy efficiency is paramount for mobile and the Internet of Things (IoT) communications. As the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communications is currently in operation and 5G-advanced is on the horizon, the objective of this paper is to assess prominent channel coding schemes in the context of recent advancements and the anticipated requirements for the sixth generation (6G). In this paper, after considering the potential impact of channel coding on key performance indicators (KPIs) of wireless networks, we review the evolution of mobile communication standards and the organizations involved in the standardization, from the first generation (1G) to the current 5G, highlighting the technologies integral to achieving targeted KPIs such as reliability, data rate, latency, energy efficiency, spectral efficiency, connection density, and traffic capacity. Following this, we delve into the anticipated requirements for potential use cases in 6G. The subsequent sections of the paper focus on a comprehensive review of three primary coding schemes utilized in past generations and their recent advancements: lowdensity parity-check (LDPC) codes, turbo codes (including convolutional codes), and polar codes (alongside Reed-Muller codes). Additionally, we examine alternative coding schemes like Fountain codes (also known as rate-less codes), sparse regression codes, among others. Our evaluation includes a comparative analysis of error correction performance and the performance of hardware implementation for these coding schemes, providing insights into their potential and suitability for the upcoming 6G era. Lastly, we will briefly explore considerations such as higher-order modulations and waveform design, examining their contributions to enhancing key performance indicators in conjunction with channel coding schemes.
The involvement of users in the product development process can significantly enhance product quality. The relationship between user experience and knowledge in product design contributes to product efficiency during the development phase. Users often struggle to align their perceptions, leading to extended product usage times and an inability to react to potential performance variations. Product manufacturers also face challenges in identifying suitable features that can positively impact product success and marketability. User experience in product interactions, encompassing both aesthetic and functional aspects, plays a pivotal role in influencing user evaluations and distinguishing characteristics crucial for achieving product success. Determining user knowledge’s influence on product success characteristics can provide valuable insights for the new product development process. This study conducted a survey to gather user experiences and knowledge, aiming to enhance the understanding of how users perceive products. This understanding is crucial for identifying product success characteristics, encompassing aspects such as specifications, sustainability, and recognition, which are instrumental in achieving overall product success. The results of the survey indicate that user knowledge, emotional experiences, and product attribute knowledge can assist product designers and manufacturers in identifying key characteristics for success during the early stages of the new product development process.

Christian Mazimpaka

and 14 more

Background: In Rwanda, Community Health Workers (CHWs) serve a crucial function in providing community-based maternal and neonatal health (CBMNH) services. However, limited access to refresher training contributes to knowledge gaps among CHWs, affecting their confidence and ability to execute their roles effectively. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of eLearning on enhancing and maintaining CHWs’ knowledge of CBMNH. Methods: This prospective cohort study, conducted from April-October 2021 in two Rwandan districts, evaluated knowledge acquisition and retention among 36 Community Health Workers (CHWs) participating in an eLearning course. Knowledge scores were measured using a structured questionnaire administered pre-training, post-training, and at a six-month follow-up. Descriptive analysis and paired t-tests were used to assess mean score differences, exploring the effectiveness of this eLearning approach. Results: This study demonstrated an improvement in Community Health Workers’ (CHWs) performance scores following eLearning training, with an average rise from 86.5% to 98.2%. The improvement was sustained at a six-month follow-up. Statistical significance was found between age category and CHWs’ pre and post-test performance (p=0.01, p=0.04 respectively), and between years of experience and pre-test scores (p=0.02), highlighting demographic influences on training outcomes. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that eLearning is an effective method for enhancing and retaining CHWs’ knowledge of CBMNH. The findings support the use of eLearning as a valuable strategy for strengthening the capacity of CHWs in Rwanda and other countries with similar contexts.

Dan Bayley

and 4 more

The threat from novel marine species introductions is a global issue. When Non-native marine species are introduced to novel environments and become invasive, they can affect biodiversity, industry, ecosystem function, and both human and wildlife health. Isolated areas with sensitive or highly specialised endemic species can be particularly impacted. The global increase in the scope of tourism activities together with a rapidly changing climate, now put these remote ecosystems under threat. In this context, we analyse invasion pathways into South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) for marine non-native species via vessel biofouling. The SGSSI archipelago has high biodiversity and endemism, and has historically been highly isolated from the South American mainland. The islands sit just below the Polar Front temperature boundary, affording some protection against introductions. However, the region is now warming and SGSSI increasingly acts as a gateway port for vessel traffic into the wider Antarctic, amplifying invasion likelihood. We use remote AIS vessel-tracking data over a two-year period to map vessel movement and behaviour around South Georgia, and across the ‘Scotia Sea’, ‘Magellanic’, and northern ‘Continental High Antarctic’ ecoregions. We find multiple vessel types from locations across the globe frequently now enter shallow inshore waters and stop for prolonged periods (weeks/months) at anchor. Vessels are active throughout the year and stop at multiple port hubs, frequently crossing international waters and ecoregions. Management recommendations to reduce marine invasion likelihood within SGSSI include initiating benthic and hull monitoring at the identified activity/dispersion hubs of King Edward Point, Bay of Isles, Gold Harbour, St Andrews Bay and Stromness Bay. More broadly, regional collaboration and coordination is necessary at neighbouring international ports. Here vessels need increased pre- and post-arrival biosecurity assessment following set protocols, and improved monitoring of hulls for biofouling to pre-emptively mitigate this threat.

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