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Michael Weekes

and 11 more

Nick K. Jones1,2*, Lucy Rivett1,2*, Chris Workman3, Mark Ferris3, Ashley Shaw1, Cambridge COVID-19 Collaboration1,4, Paul J. Lehner1,4, Rob Howes5, Giles Wright3, Nicholas J. Matheson1,4,6¶, Michael P. Weekes1,7¶1 Cambridge University NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK2 Clinical Microbiology & Public Health Laboratory, Public Health England, Cambridge, UK3 Occupational Health and Wellbeing, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK4 Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK5 Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre and AstraZeneca, Anne Mclaren Building, Cambridge, UK6 NHS Blood and Transplant, Cambridge, UK7 Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK*Joint first authorship¶Joint last authorshipCorrespondence: UK has initiated mass COVID-19 immunisation, with healthcare workers (HCWs) given early priority because of the potential for workplace exposure and risk of onward transmission to patients. The UK’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation has recommended maximising the number of people vaccinated with first doses at the expense of early booster vaccinations, based on single dose efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 disease.1-3At the time of writing, three COVID-19 vaccines have been granted emergency use authorisation in the UK, including the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). A vital outstanding question is whether this vaccine prevents or promotes asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, rather than symptomatic COVID-19 disease, because sub-clinical infection following vaccination could continue to drive transmission. This is especially important because many UK HCWs have received this vaccine, and nosocomial COVID-19 infection has been a persistent problem.Through the implementation of a 24 h-turnaround PCR-based comprehensive HCW screening programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT), we previously demonstrated the frequent presence of pauci- and asymptomatic infection amongst HCWs during the UK’s first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.4 Here, we evaluate the effect of first-dose BNT162b2 vaccination on test positivity rates and cycle threshold (Ct) values in the asymptomatic arm of our programme, which now offers weekly screening to all staff.Vaccination of HCWs at CUHNFT began on 8th December 2020, with mass vaccination from 8th January 2021. Here, we analyse data from the two weeks spanning 18thto 31st January 2021, during which: (a) the prevalence of COVID-19 amongst HCWs remained approximately constant; and (b) we screened comparable numbers of vaccinated and unvaccinated HCWs. Over this period, 4,408 (week 1) and 4,411 (week 2) PCR tests were performed from individuals reporting well to work. We stratified HCWs <12 days or > 12 days post-vaccination because this was the point at which protection against symptomatic infection began to appear in phase III clinical trial.226/3,252 (0·80%) tests from unvaccinated HCWs were positive (Ct<36), compared to 13/3,535 (0·37%) from HCWs <12 days post-vaccination and 4/1,989 (0·20%) tests from HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination (p=0·023 and p=0·004, respectively; Fisher’s exact test, Figure). This suggests a four-fold decrease in the risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs ≥12 days post-vaccination, compared to unvaccinated HCWs, with an intermediate effect amongst HCWs <12 days post-vaccination.A marked reduction in infections was also seen when analyses were repeated with: (a) inclusion of HCWs testing positive through both the symptomatic and asymptomatic arms of the programme (56/3,282 (1·71%) unvaccinated vs 8/1,997 (0·40%) ≥12 days post-vaccination, 4·3-fold reduction, p=0·00001); (b) inclusion of PCR tests which were positive at the limit of detection (Ct>36, 42/3,268 (1·29%) vs 15/2,000 (0·75%), 1·7-fold reduction, p=0·075); and (c) extension of the period of analysis to include six weeks from December 28th to February 7th 2021 (113/14,083 (0·80%) vs 5/4,872 (0·10%), 7·8-fold reduction, p=1x10-9). In addition, the median Ct value of positive tests showed a non-significant trend towards increase between unvaccinated HCWs and HCWs > 12 days post-vaccination (23·3 to 30·3, Figure), suggesting that samples from vaccinated individuals had lower viral loads.We therefore provide real-world evidence for a high level of protection against asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection after a single dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, at a time of predominant transmission of the UK COVID-19 variant of concern 202012/01 (lineage B.1.1.7), and amongst a population with a relatively low frequency of prior infection (7.2% antibody positive).5This work was funded by a Wellcome Senior Clinical Research Fellowship to MPW (108070/Z/15/Z), a Wellcome Principal Research Fellowship to PJL (210688/Z/18/Z), and an MRC Clinician Scientist Fellowship (MR/P008801/1) and NHSBT workpackage (WPA15-02) to NJM. Funding was also received from Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust and the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. We also acknowledge contributions from all staff at CUHNFT Occupational Health and Wellbeing and the Cambridge COVID-19 Testing Centre.

Guangming Wang

and 4 more

Tam Hunt

and 1 more

Tam Hunt [1], Jonathan SchoolerUniversity of California Santa Barbara Synchronization, harmonization, vibrations, or simply resonance in its most general sense seems to have an integral relationship with consciousness itself. One of the possible “neural correlates of consciousness” in mammalian brains is a combination of gamma, beta and theta synchrony. More broadly, we see similar kinds of resonance patterns in living and non-living structures of many types. What clues can resonance provide about the nature of consciousness more generally? This paper provides an overview of resonating structures in the fields of neuroscience, biology and physics and attempts to coalesce these data into a solution to what we see as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem, which is generally known as the “combination problem” or the “binding problem.” The combination problem asks: how do micro-conscious entities combine into a higher-level macro-consciousness? The proposed solution in the context of mammalian consciousness suggests that a shared resonance is what allows different parts of the brain to achieve a phase transition in the speed and bandwidth of information flows between the constituent parts. This phase transition allows for richer varieties of consciousness to arise, with the character and content of that consciousness in each moment determined by the particular set of constituent neurons. We also offer more general insights into the ontology of consciousness and suggest that consciousness manifests as a relatively smooth continuum of increasing richness in all physical processes, distinguishing our view from emergentist materialism. We refer to this approach as a (general) resonance theory of consciousness and offer some responses to Chalmers’ questions about the different kinds of “combination problem.”  At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync…. [T]hese feats of synchrony occur spontaneously, almost as if nature has an eerie yearning for order. Steven Strogatz, Sync: How Order Emerges From Chaos in the Universe, Nature and Daily Life (2003) If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.Nikola Tesla (1942) I.               Introduction Is there an “easy part” and a “hard part” to the Hard Problem of consciousness? In this paper, we suggest that there is. The harder part is arriving at a philosophical position with respect to the relationship of matter and mind. This paper is about the “easy part” of the Hard Problem but we address the “hard part” briefly in this introduction.  We have both arrived, after much deliberation, at the position of panpsychism or panexperientialism (all matter has at least some associated mind/experience and vice versa). This is the view that all things and processes have both mental and physical aspects. Matter and mind are two sides of the same coin.  Panpsychism is one of many possible approaches that addresses the “hard part” of the Hard Problem. We adopt this position for all the reasons various authors have listed (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1997, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017). This first step is particularly powerful if we adopt the Whiteheadian version of panpsychism (Whitehead 1929).  Reaching a position on this fundamental question of how mind relates to matter must be based on a “weight of plausibility” approach, rather than on definitive evidence, because establishing definitive evidence with respect to the presence of mind/experience is difficult. We must generally rely on examining various “behavioral correlates of consciousness” in judging whether entities other than ourselves are conscious – even with respect to other humans—since the only consciousness we can know with certainty is our own. Positing that matter and mind are two sides of the same coin explains the problem of consciousness insofar as it avoids the problems of emergence because under this approach consciousness doesn’t emerge. Consciousness is, rather, always present, at some level, even in the simplest of processes, but it “complexifies” as matter complexifies, and vice versa. Consciousness starts very simple and becomes more complex and rich under the right conditions, which in our proposed framework rely on resonance mechanisms. Matter and mind are two sides of the coin. Neither is primary; they are coequal.  We acknowledge the challenges of adopting this perspective, but encourage readers to consider the many compelling reasons to consider it that are reviewed elsewhere (Chalmers 1996, Griffin 1998, Hunt 2011, Goff 2017, Schooler, Schooler, & Hunt, 2011; Schooler, 2015).  Taking a position on the overarching ontology is the first step in addressing the Hard Problem. But this leads to the related questions: at what level of organization does consciousness reside in any particular process? Is a rock conscious? A chair? An ant? A bacterium? Or are only the smaller constituents, such as atoms or molecules, of these entities conscious? And if there is some degree of consciousness even in atoms and molecules, as panpsychism suggests (albeit of a very rudimentary nature, an important point to remember), how do these micro-conscious entities combine into the higher-level and obvious consciousness we witness in entities like humans and other mammals?  This set of questions is known as the “combination problem,” another now-classic problem in the philosophy of mind, and is what we describe here as the “easy part” of the Hard Problem. Our characterization of this part of the problem as “easy”[2] is, of course, more than a little tongue in cheek. The authors have discussed frequently with each other what part of the Hard Problem should be labeled the easier part and which the harder part. Regardless of the labels we choose, however, this paper focuses on our suggested solution to the combination problem.  Various solutions to the combination problem have been proposed but none have gained widespread acceptance. This paper further elaborates a proposed solution to the combination problem that we first described in Hunt 2011 and Schooler, Hunt, and Schooler 2011. The proposed solution rests on the idea of resonance, a shared vibratory frequency, which can also be called synchrony or field coherence. We will generally use resonance and “sync,” short for synchrony, interchangeably in this paper. We describe the approach as a general resonance theory of consciousness or just “general resonance theory” (GRT). GRT is a field theory of consciousness wherein the various specific fields associated with matter and energy are the seat of conscious awareness.  A summary of our approach appears in Appendix 1.  All things in our universe are constantly in motion, in process. Even objects that appear to be stationary are in fact vibrating, oscillating, resonating, at specific frequencies. So all things are actually processes. Resonance is a specific type of motion, characterized by synchronized oscillation between two states.  An interesting phenomenon occurs when different vibrating processes come into proximity: they will often start vibrating together at the same frequency. They “sync up,” sometimes in ways that can seem mysterious, and allow for richer and faster information and energy flows (Figure 1 offers a schematic). Examining this phenomenon leads to potentially deep insights about the nature of consciousness in both the human/mammalian context but also at a deeper ontological level.

Susanne Schilling*^

and 9 more

Jessica mead

and 6 more

The construct of wellbeing has been criticised as a neoliberal construction of western individualism that ignores wider systemic issues including increasing burden of chronic disease, widening inequality, concerns over environmental degradation and anthropogenic climate change. While these criticisms overlook recent developments, there remains a need for biopsychosocial models that extend theoretical grounding beyond individual wellbeing, incorporating overlapping contextual issues relating to community and environment. Our first GENIAL model \cite{Kemp_2017} provided a more expansive view of pathways to longevity in the context of individual health and wellbeing, emphasising bidirectional links to positive social ties and the impact of sociocultural factors. In this paper, we build on these ideas and propose GENIAL 2.0, focusing on intersecting individual-community-environmental contributions to health and wellbeing, and laying an evidence-based, theoretical framework on which future research and innovative therapeutic innovations could be based. We suggest that our transdisciplinary model of wellbeing - focusing on individual, community and environmental contributions to personal wellbeing - will help to move the research field forward. In reconceptualising wellbeing, GENIAL 2.0 bridges the gap between psychological science and population health health systems, and presents opportunities for enhancing the health and wellbeing of people living with chronic conditions. Implications for future generations including the very survival of our species are discussed.  

Mark Ferris

and 14 more

IntroductionConsistent with World Health Organization (WHO) advice [1], UK Infection Protection Control guidance recommends that healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should use fluid resistant surgical masks type IIR (FRSMs) as respiratory protective equipment (RPE), unless aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) are being undertaken or are likely, when a filtering face piece 3 (FFP3) respirator should be used [2]. In a recent update, an FFP3 respirator is recommended if “an unacceptable risk of transmission remains following rigorous application of the hierarchy of control” [3]. Conversely, guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19 should use an N95 or higher level respirator [4]. WHO guidance suggests that a respirator, such as FFP3, may be used for HCWs in the absence of AGPs if availability or cost is not an issue [1].A recent systematic review undertaken for PHE concluded that: “patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are breathing, talking or coughing generate both respiratory droplets and aerosols, but FRSM (and where required, eye protection) are considered to provide adequate staff protection” [5]. Nevertheless, FFP3 respirators are more effective in preventing aerosol transmission than FRSMs, and observational data suggests that they may improve protection for HCWs [6]. It has therefore been suggested that respirators should be considered as a means of affording the best available protection [7], and some organisations have decided to provide FFP3 (or equivalent) respirators to HCWs caring for COVID-19 patients, despite a lack of mandate from local or national guidelines [8].Data from the HCW testing programme at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (CUHNFT) during the first wave of the UK severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic indicated a higher incidence of infection amongst HCWs caring for patients with COVID-19, compared with those who did not [9]. Subsequent studies have confirmed this observation [10, 11]. This disparity persisted at CUHNFT in December 2020, despite control measures consistent with PHE guidance and audits indicating good compliance. The CUHNFT infection control committee therefore implemented a change of RPE for staff on “red” (COVID-19) wards from FRSMs to FFP3 respirators. In this study, we analyse the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs before and after this transition.

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Most recent documents

assaf adar

and 5 more

Objective: Acute bronchiolitis, primarily caused by Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), is the most common cause of hospitalization in young children. Despite international guidelines supporting clinical diagnosis, laboratory evaluations are often conducted with limited validity. We aim to evaluate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at admission and disease severity in children hospitalized due to RSV bronchiolitis. Study design: This single center retrospective cohort study included children (0-24 months old) who were hospitalized due to RSV bronchiolitis (January 2018 – March 2022) with CRP levels taken upon admission. Clinical data and severity parameters were extracted using MD-clone platform and the clinical research unit at SUMC. Results: 1,874 children (mean age of 6.7 months, 59% males) with a median CRP level of 1.92mg/dL were included. Children with elevated CRP (>1.92mg/dL) were significantly older (5.1 vs. 3.8 months, p<0.001), had higher rates of pneumonia (9.4% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001 ), urinary tract infection (UTI), (2.2% vs. 0.2%, p<0.001), acute otitis media (AOM), (1.7% vs 0.2%, p<0.001), admissions to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (7.4% vs 3.7%, p<0.001), antibiotic treatment (49.8% vs 37.2%, p<0.001) and longer hospitalizations (3.83 vs 3.31 days, p=0.001). Multivariable analysis predicted increased risk for UTI, PICU admission, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization (relative risk of 11.6, 2.25, 1.98, 1.44, respectively, p<0.001)). CRP thresholds of 3.51, 1.9, and 2.81 mg/dL for PICU admission, UTI, and pneumonia, were calculated using Youden’s index with AUC of 0.72, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively. Conclusions: Elevated CRP levels at admission are associated with increased disease severity and higher complication rates in children hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis.

Madi Muratbekov

and 1 more

James Morris

and 2 more

Background: Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy which, left untreated, can cause significant foeto-maternal morbidity. Accordingly, the National Institution for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that high-risk women be prescribed daily prophylaxis with 75-150mg aspirin from twelve weeks’ gestation until delivery. NICE stratifies risk using eleven maternal risk factors; however, no secondary research has been published evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of this algorithm. Objectives: Quantify the sensitivity and specificity of the NICE risk‑stratification algorithm in predicting pre‑eclampsia in pregnant women ≥16 years. Search Strategy: PubMed, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS. PROSPERO Registration: CRD42023437261. Selection Criteria: Papers with a CBEM Level of Evidence ≤4, published 2010‑2023. Data Collection and Analysis: 20 eligible studies consisting of 892,061 pregnancies were analysed. Logit-transformed sensitivities and specificities were modelled as bivariate distributions with random effects. Main Results: Maximum likelihood estimates for the NICE algorithm’s sensitivity and specificity were 44.7% (95% CI 32.3 – 57.8) and 88.0% (95% CI 87.4-88.7), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity between the studies in this analysis (χ 2(17) = 85.05 (p<.0001), I 2=99.8%) and, consequently, a low degree of certainty in these estimates. Conclusions: The NICE risk‑stratification algorithm performs remarkably poorly when used to predict pre‑eclampsia in any of three gestational categories. Clinicians should advise women that around 1 in 5 high-risk patients and 1 in 25 low-risk patients go on to develop pre‑eclampsia. However, future studies will likely alter these values and the confidence therein. Funding: None Key Words: Pre-eclampsia, High-risk Pregnancy, Sensitivity and Specificity, Predictive Value of Tests, Clinical Decision Rules.

Lifang Zong

and 3 more

Syed Ifthekar

and 3 more

Spontaneous Spinal Cord Herniation with Post-operative paraplegia- A case report with 10-year follow-upAbstract:Background: Spinal cord herniation is an uncommon diagnosis in the field of spine surgery. The usual presentation of spontaneous spinal cord herniation is in the form of progressive Brown-Sequard syndrome. We describe a case of a 37-year-old male with progressive back pain and sensory deficits due to spinal cord herniation and a post-operative complication associated with reduction of the hernia.Case description: A 37-year-old male presented with insidious onset upper back pain and altered sensations of pain and temperature over the right half of the body below the nipple 2 months before the examination. The patient did not have motor weakness of lower limbs, abnormal/ involuntary movements, or loss of control over the bowel and bladder. MRI of the thoracic spine showed an anterolateral defect(left) at the level of the T2-T3 vertebra. A posterior approach was chosen and the cord with roots was reduced into the dura. The defect was covered by a dural graft (Lyodura) and the wound was closed with a drain insitu. On the 3rd post-operative day, patient developed paraplegia. Patient was treated by exploration and decompression of the hematoma that compressed spinal cord. The deficits were completely recovered at one-month follow-up.Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord herniation and neurologic deficits when treated timely with reduction of the hernia, have good outcomes. The drain should be removed only when the treating team is satisfied regarding the lack of ongoing hemorrhage. The recovery was maintained till the last follow-up at 10 years.Key words: spontaneous spinal cord herniation, spinal cord defect, paraplegia, Brown-Sequard syndrome

Emils Bolmanis

and 4 more

Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth promoting bacterium that acts as a microbial fertilizer and biocontrol agent, providing benefits such as boosting crop productivity and improving nutrient content. It is able to produce secondary metabolites and endospores simultaneously, enhancing its ability to survive in unfavorable conditions and eliminate competing microorganisms. Optimizing cultivation methods for the production of B. subtilis MSCL 897 spores on an industrial scale requires a suitable medium, typically made from food industry by-products, and maintaining optimal temperature and pH levels to achieve high vegetative cell and spore densities with maximum productivity and yield. In this study, we demonstrate successful pilot-scale (100 L bioreactor) production of a biocontrol agent B. subtilis with good spore yields (1.5 x 10 9 spores/mL) and a high degree of sporulation (>80%) using a low-cost cultivation media, which showed excellent antifungal activity (1.6-2.3 cm) against several phytopathogenic fungi. An improved methodology for inoculum preparation was investigated to ensure an optimal seed culture state prior to inoculation, promoting process batch-to-batch repeatability. Increasing the molasses concentration in the medium and operating the process in fed-batch mode with additional molasses feed, did not improve the overall spore yield, hence, process operation in batch mode with 10 g/L molasses is preferred. Results also showed that the product quality was not significantly impacted for up to 12 months of storage at room temperature.

Danni Wang

and 7 more

Objective: To assess the association between chronotype and depressive symptoms in an infertile population undergoing assisted reproductive technology. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Reproductive Medicine Center in Hefei, China. Population: 1022 infertile patients who sought assisted reproductive technology at the Center between August and October 2022, were assessed for inclusion in this study. Methods: On the day of ovulation injection, we collected socio-demographics by inviting infertile patients to complete questionnaires and assessed the subjects’ chronotypes through the Morning and Evening Questionnaire-5 Items (MEQ-5). Main Outcome Measures: Depressive symptoms, assessed with validated Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and expressed as PHQ-9 scores. Results: Overall, 9%, 68%, and 22% of participants were categorized as evening, neutral, and morning chronotypes, respectively. There were significant differences between chronotype on levels of depressive symptoms, subjects with morning chronotype (odds ratios = 0.32, 95% confidence intervals: 0.18-0.57) and neutral chronotype (odds ratios = 0.47, 95% confidence intervals: 0.28-0.77) had lower odds of depressive status, compared to those with evening chronotype, but no partner effect of chronotype was found ( p >0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that morning and neutral chronotypes may be significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms. In addition, the effect of earlier chronotypes in men on depressive symptoms in women warrants relevant clinical attention when considering treatment.

Ross Crates

and 10 more

Small, fragmented or isolated populations are at risk of population decline due to fitness costs associated with inbreeding and genetic drift. The King Island scrubtit Acanthornis magna greeniana is a critically endangered endemic subspecies of the nominate Tasmanian scrubtit A. m. magna, with an estimated population of <100 individuals persisting in three patches of swamp forest. The Tasmanian scrubtit is widespread in wet forests on mainland Tasmania. We sequenced the scrubtit genome using PacBio HiFi and undertook a population genomics study of the King Island and Tasmanian scrubtit using a double-digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) dataset of 5,239 SNP loci. The genome was 1.48 Gb long, comprising 1,518 contigs with an N50 of 7.715 Mb. King Island scrubtits formed one of four overall genetic clusters, but separated into three distinct subpopulations when analysed separately. Pairwise FST values were greater among the King Island scrubtit subpopulations than among most Tasmanian scrubtit subpopulations. Genetic diversity was lower and inbreeding coefficients were higher in the King Island scrubtit than all except one of the Tasmanian scrubtit subpopulations. We observed crown baldness in 8/15 King Island scrubtits, but 0/55 Tasmanian scrubtits. Six loci were significantly associated with baldness, including one within the DOCK11 gene which is linked to early feather development. Contemporary gene flow between King Island scrubtit subpopulations is unlikely, with further field monitoring required to quantify the fitness consequences of its small effective size, low genetic diversity and high inbreeding. Evidence-based conservation actions can then be implemented before the taxon goes extinct.

Sarah Lobet

and 11 more

Aims. The exposure-response relationship of bevacizumab may be confounded by various factors, i.e. baseline characteristics, time-dependent target engagement and recursive relationships between exposure and response. This work aimed at investigating the exposure-response relationships of bevacizumab in mCRC patients while mitigating potential sources of bias. Methods. Bevacizumab pharmacokinetics was described using target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) modeling. The relationships between target kinetics, and progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survivals were assessed using joint pharmacokinetic and parametric hazard function models. Both potential biases due to prognostic-driven and response-driven of the concentration-effect relationship were mitigated. These models were used to evaluate the effect of increased antigen target levels and clearance, as well as intensified dosing regimen, on survival. Results. Estimated target-mediated pharmacokinetic parameters in 130 assessed patients were: baseline target levels (R0=8.4 nM), steady-state dissociation constant (KSS=10 nM) and antibody-target complexes elimination constant (kint=0.52 day-1). Distribution of R0 was significantly associated with an increased baseline CEA and circulating VEGF levels, and the presence of extra-hepatic metastases. Unbound target levels (R) significantly influenced both progression and death hazard functions. Increased R0 or CL values led to decreased bevacizumab unbound concentrations, increased R levels, and shortened PFS and OS, whereas increasing bevacizumab dose led to decreased R and longer survival. Conclusion. This study is the first to show the relationship between bevacizumab concentrations, target involvement and clinical efficacy by mitigating potential sources of bias. Most of target amount may be tumoral in mCRC. A more in-depth description of this relationship should be made in future studies.

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Gizem Koken

and 8 more

Background: Food-induced immediate response of the esophagus (FIRE) is a new phenomenon that has been described in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) patients. It is suspected when unpleasant symptoms occur suddenly on contact of the triggering food with the esophageal surface and recur with repeated exposures. It can often be mistaken for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) and solid food dysphagia. Data on FIRE is limited to one survey study and case reports, and there are no screening studies conducted on either adults or children with EoE. In this study, we aimed to screen children aged ≥7 years old with EoE for FIRE. Methods: Demographic data were collected from medical records. A questionnaire about FIRE was applied to all participants. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were done on suspected patients to identify the triggering foods. FIRE is defined as suitable clinical symptoms with suspected food allergen exposure. Results: Seventy-eight patients (74.4% male, median age: 13.5 years) were included. Unpleasant and recurrent symptoms distinct from dysphagia with specific foods were reported in %16.7 of the patients, all of whom had concomitant allergic rhinitis (AR). The symptoms described by almost all patients were oropharyngeal itching and tingling (PFAS: 15.3%) excluding only one patient reporting retrosternal narrowing and pressure after specific food consumption (FIRE: 1.2%). Conclusions: Although definitive conclusions regarding the true prevalence of FIRE cannot be made, it does not seem to be common as PFAS. However, it deserves questioning particularly in the presence of concurrent AR and/or PFAS in children with EoE.

Shen Shen

and 3 more

Optimizing the spatial configuration of diverse best management practices (BMPs) can provide valuable decision-making support for comprehensive watershed management. Most existing methods focus on selecting BMP types and locations but neglect their implementation time or order in management scenarios, which are often investment-restricted. This study proposes a new simulation-optimization framework for determining the implementation plan of BMPs by using the net present value to calculate the economic costs of BMP scenarios and the time-varying effectiveness of BMPs to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of BMP scenarios. The proposed framework was implemented based on a Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling System and demonstrated in an agricultural watershed case study. This case study optimized the implementation time of four erosion control BMPs in a specific spatial configuration scenario under a 5-year stepwise investment process. The proposed method could effectively provide more feasible BMP scenarios with a lower overall investment burden with only a slight loss of environmental effectiveness. Time-varying BMP effectiveness data should be gathered and incorporated into watershed modeling and scenario optimization to better depict the environmental improvement effects of BMPs over time. The proposed framework was sufficiently flexible to be applied to other technical implementations and extensible to more actual application cases with sufficient BMP data. Overall, this study demonstrated the basic idea of extending the spatial optimization of BMPs to a spatiotemporal level by considering stepwise investment, emphasizing the value of integrating physical geographic processes and anthropogenic influences.

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