The extraction of butter from cocoa seeds involves various processing steps that weak the lipid-storing cell walls of cocoa cotyledons. Roasting is particularly critical, making cocoa nibs porous and brittle. In this study, the degree of disruption of the microstructure of cocoa nibs, and the quality and aroma profile of cocoa butter, were evaluated using two roasting techniques, forced convective oven, and fluidized bed. Fluidized bed roasting, recognized for its energy efficiency and low-footprint synthesis, was more than 10 times faster than oven roasting. This technique allowed a fast release of steam when parenchyma cell walls were still in a glassy state, while oven roasting caused gradual physical modification allowing the cell wall to become more elastic. Consequently, when using fluidizing bed technique, small pores of unroasted cocoa nibs swelled and coalesced to produce more large-sized ones. 3-D microscopic image analysis showed a total porosity in unroasted cocoa beans of 8.5 ± 2.0% (v/v): this value doubled upon oven roasting and triplicated upon fluidized bed roasting. The higher porosity in fast-roasted nibs was reflected in the lowest densities and highest cocoa butter yield. Cocoa butter obtained from fluidized-bed roasted cocoa showed a higher presence of pyrazines and 3-methylbutanal, and a lower concentration of hydroperoxides, thus enhancing the chocolate flavor and quality. In this paper, we showed that pore-structure of cocoa nibs is a key quality descriptor of roasting processing, and we concluded by energetic and quality considerations that fluidized bed roasting of cocoa nibs should be preferred over conventional roasting.
The upgrading of oleyl alcohol synthesis via methyl oleate reduction using NaBH4 without H2 supply was investigated. It was possible to synthesize selectively the valuable unsaturated fatty alcohol with high yields. Non-catalytic and catalytic experiments were developed trying to improve the low final oleyl alcohol yield previously obtained. The effect of reaction temperature, methyl oleate/NaBH4 molar ratio and properties of different catalysts on final oleyl alcohol yield was analyzed. Thus, alumina-supported metal (M) catalysts (M = Fe, Ce, Mo) were synthesized by impregnation at incipient wetness. The M/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized in their chemical, textural, structural and acid-base properties using ICP, N2 physisorption, XRD and NH3 and CO2 TPD. During non-catalytic methyl oleate reduction final methyl oleate conversion and oleyl alcohol yield of 94% were obtained using a methyl oleate/NaBH4 molar ratio of 0.11 at 333 K. Catalytic activity of M/Al2O3 solids did not correlate with basic site number but increased as acid site number and ionic potential of M cations increase. This suggests that cations with high acid site number and polarizing power are the ones that promote the polarization of the ester C=O and anion [BH4]- bonds favoring de methyl oleate conversion. In addition, the reaction mechanism for fatty acid methyl ester reduction was investigated from a theoretical approach using Density Functional Theory method at B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) computational level. Results obtained during theoretical calculations confirmed that the formation of reducing alcoxyborohydride species is energetically favored and allowed to understand the events at microscopic level involved in the reaction mechanism.
The aim of this study was to determine and optimize culture media for Chlorella vulgaris microalgae under mixotrophic conditions using waste molasses as a cheap carbon source containing both organic carbons and other nutrients. In the current study, at first the growth and lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris were assessed in different culture media and the best media was selected for mixotrophic growth conditions. Significant medium ingredients were screened through Plackett–Burman design. Then ingredients with positive effect were considered as a mixture component and their combinations were evaluated on lipid productivity using mixture design. According to results, Zarrouk medium was considered as the base medium with the highest biomass and lipid productivity of 72 and 7.1 mg/l.d , respectively. Based on the Plackett–Burman design, out of eleven factors, molasses, NaNO3 and K2HPO4 demonstrated key roles in biomass and lipid productivity in mixotrophic conditions. Consequently, the selected three factors were investigated by mixture design. The results showed that high concentration of molasses causes decrease in biomass and lipid productivity due to high turbidity and a blend consisting of approximately 9.5 g/l molasses, 5 g/l NaNO3 and 0.15 g/l K2HPO4 was found as the optimum mixture with obtained lipid productivity of 115 mg/l.d. In conclusion, waste molasses can be used as a promising feedstock for cost effective cultivation of C. vulgaris.
The initial oleogelation process (microstructuring) as well as the formulation are determinant to obtain the desired characteristics in oleogels with potential application in the industry. The microstructuring process in oleogels has been extensively studied by means of techniques highly sensitive to thermal variations, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). However, there are other readily available techniques and equipment that can be employed to perform similar evaluations. Non-isothermal nucleation kinetics by spectrophotometric methods can be used as alternatives to basic crystallization studies in oleogels. Therefore, in this research a comparison of both techniques is presented, highlighting their similarities, advantages and limitations, in the study of the microstructure of oleogels. Oleogels were obtained with a minimum concentration of gelator and another saturated one, using vegetable oils of different degrees of saturation. The crystallization profiles of the oleogels were obtained by DSC, a non-isothermal nucleation kinetics was performed from the molten system and the final microstructure was evaluated by optical microscopy. The Fisher-Turnbull and Avrami model was used to evaluate the behavior during microstructuring. A gap was observed during the crystallization process by DSC which can be evaluated by spectrophotometry. Differences in the microstructuring process were found in both methods due to the temperature ramp used and formulation variables. The results obtained by spectrophotometry indicate that it can be a good alternative, easily accessible in oleogel crystallization studies, when high sensitivity or very specific thermal parameters are not required.
Protein extraction from soybeans is a vital part of the soy industry. Traditionally, the extraction of soy protein has been done by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. As technology has advanced, more extraction techniques are superior to this traditional method. In this review, the composition and classification of soy protein are summarized. Next, the current emerging technologies for soy protein extraction are highlighted. Three extraction technologies, namely reverse micellar, enzyme-assisted and membrane ultrafiltration, are reviewed in detail. Finally, the research prospects and trends of soy protein extraction technology are also summarized.
Glycerol monooleate (GMO)-stabilized liquid water-in-vegetable oil (W/VO) emulsions are difficult to stabilize due to the desorption of GMO from the W-VO interface towards the oil phase. This work improved the stability of GMO-stabilized liquid 20 wt% water-in-canola oil (W/CO) emulsion by modifying the dispersed aqueous phase composition with hydrogen bond-forming agents. As a control, 20 wt% water-in-mineral oil (W/MO) emulsion was also utilized. Different concentrations of hydrogen bond-forming agents (citric acid (CA), ascorbic acid (AA), low methoxyl pectin (LMP)) with and without salts (sodium chloride (S) or calcium chloride (Ca)) was added to the aqueous phase before emulsification, which enhanced emulsifier binding to the water-oil interface. The emulsions were characterized by phase separation, stability against accelerated gravitation, microstructure and rheology. W/CO emulsion without any aqueous phase additive destabilized instantly, whereas W/MO emulsion stayed stable. The addition of hydrogen bond-forming agents and salts significantly improved emulsion stability. LMP, with many hydrogen bond-forming groups, was able to provide the highest emulsion stability after 7 days in both oils compared to AA, CA and their mixtures with S. Emulsions with both oils formed weak gels with viscous and elastic characteristics due to the formation of an extensive network of water droplet aggregates. Overall, the hydrogen bond-forming agents interacted with GMO at the interface, thereby improving their presence at the water droplet surface, allowing significantly improved stability of GMO-stabilized liquid W/CO emulsions. The knowledge developed in this research can be useful in applying GMO in stabilizing liquid water-in-oil emulsion without using any crystal network.
Striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) roe is used for the production of traditional delicacies in Greece (avgotaracho), Japan (karasumi) and Italy (botargo). In Greece avgotaracho is a Protected Designation of Origin product and its special taste combined with its high nutritional value of this rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and bioactive compounds delicacy attracts many consumers. During the production of avgotaracho and the similar products some of the egg sacs (skeins) either break or have an inappropriate size (too small) and they can not be used for avgotaracho production. On the other hand the nutritional quality of the eggs in the broken or smaller skein is by no means inferior comparing to the rest. Proper valorization of the mullet roe by-products could lead to high nutrition value products. This work focuses on examining the potential valorization of these high nutritional value by-products for producing mullet roe oil. Three different extraction methods with potential of scale-up are examined. Namely pressure, supercritical extraction, solvent extraction are examined where mild temperature conditions and (wherever applicable) food-grade solvents are used. The oil yield, the composition of oils in fatty acids by GC-FID, the level of oil oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, K232 K268, TOTOX) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) are determined. The potential of the above extraction methods for the production of mullet roe oil in terms of yield and oil quality is discussed.
Bigels, are prepared by homogenization of an organogel and hydrogel. Bigels can offer improved properties when compared to other gelled systems due to its semi-solid internal phase and supramolecular interactions between components. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mono-diglycerides (MDG) on the supramolecular structure and interactions, physical stability and mechanical properties of a rice bran wax (RBW)–gelatin bigels. The organogel-to-hydrogel (OG:HG) ratios tested were 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20 with MDG incorporated at four concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, 3% (w/w)). Bigels were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), texture analysis and liquid binding capacity studies. The results showed that MDG have a dual effect on the structural organization and stability of the systems; they act as emulsifiers and/or crystallization modifiers. CSLM and FTIR showed that the addition of MDG had the greatest effect on the microstructure of the 60:40 OG:HG ratio, where MDG concentrations 0.5 and 1% (w/w) exhibited a reduction in the size of the oleogel regions while concentrations 2 and 3% (w/w) showed a phase inversion. MDG addition resulted in a gradual decrease in bigel hardness, but an enhancement of physical stability.
Oleogelation offers the possibility to reduce the saturated fatty acid (SAFA) content while maintaining the desired organoleptic properties. Hereby, SAFA are replaced by other structurants which can create a three-dimensional network that immobilizes the liquid oil. Depending on the type of structurants, different structuring routes are identified. The use of monoglycerides (MAGs) as structurants is a promising approach thanks to their great self-assembling properties. However, implementation into the food industry is still hampered due to insufficient characterization. This research includes a multiscale analysis of two dynamically produced MAG-based oleogels as a function of the storage time (up to 8 weeks). Slight differences in the production process resulted in differences in techno-functional properties between the MAG-based oleogels MO1 and MO2. MO1 consisted of larger crystals, which resulted in a lower rigidity, lower stability and lower oil binding capacity compared to the other oleogel (MO2). On the nanoscale, it was found that the crystal nanoplatelets (CNPs) of MO1 contained a higher number of lamellae compared to the MO2. Additionally, the results obtained with ultra-small angle X-ray scattering indicated a larger equivalent diameter for the CNPs of MO1. As a function of the storage time, both oleogels did not show major structural changes up to 8 weeks of storage.
Protein from camelina seed is a valuable co-product that can be derived from the meal remaining after oil extraction. The current study describes the types and physicochemical properties of the major proteins present in camelina meal. Seed coat mucilage, which interferes with protein extraction, was removed from whole seeds by digestion with Viscozyme® and lipids were removed with hexane to obtain demucilaged/defatted meal. Protein comprised 51.3% of meal dry matter and the eight essential amino acids comprised 40.8% of total amino acids. The meal polypeptide profile showed bands originating from cruciferin (~44.1 and 51.7 kDa), napin (~14 kDa) and oil body proteins (OBP; ~15-20 kDa) resembling that of other crucifers. Cruciferins (11 isoforms) were the predominant proteins, while vicilins (6 isoforms) also were identified among the proteins soluble at pH 8.5. Among the proteins soluble at pH 3, napins (5 isoforms) comprised the majority, though late embryogenesis abundant proteins also were found. Camelina cruciferin and napin were confirmed to possess predominantly β-sheet and α-helix secondary structures, respectively. Camelina cruciferin structure was highly sensitive to changes in medium pH and underwent acid-induced denaturation at pH 3, but exhibited high thermal stability (>80°C) at neutral and alkaline pHs. The structure of camelina napins was less sensitive to pH. The major proteins associated with oil bodies were oleosins (6 isoforms). Identification and characterization of the properties of camelina meal proteins will enable strategic paths for co-product valorization.
We studied the thermomechanical and microstructural properties of oleogels developed with 2.1 to 15.7 Moles of monoglycerides/Mole of lecithin (MG/LC). The oleogels were developed (15°C) in vegetable (VO) and mineral (MO) oils using at each MG/LC 2% or 4% total mass of gelator. During oleogelation a synergistic MG-LC interaction existed deriving in the development of MG-LC cocrystals even below the gelators’ minimum gelling concentration. The cocrystals delayed the Lα→β polymorphic transition and worked as an active filler of the oleogels’ crystal network. In the VO, the oil with the highest relative polarity, the oleogels were structured by a network of β crystals where the cocrystals acted as an active filler. In the MO, the oil with the lowest relative polarity, the cocrystals’ development was favored while the Lα→β transition occurred just in the 15.7 MG/LC oleogels. Then, at all MG/LC the VO oleogels with 2% or 4% total gelator concentration achieved higher G’ than MO oleogels. However, the presence of β crystals will produce deleterious effects in shorter time in the VO oleogels than in the MO oleogels. In both oils the oleogels with the highest G’ and gel-like rheological behavior were achieved at 8.1 MG/LC, particularly at 4% total gelator concentration. Under these conditions the β polymorph was limited developed in the VO oleogels and completely absent in the MO oleogels. Then, we might tailoring the rheology of MG-LC oleogels with storage stability using as design variables the MG/LC, the total gelator concentration, and the polarity of the oil.
Oleogelation is an efficient way to structure oil and reduce saturated fatty acids of lipid products. Multi-component gels are of particularly interest attributed to the ability to tune gel properties by alteration of the component proportions. In this study, monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are used as gelator mixture and the influence of the ratio of these two crystalline particles on the characteristics of oleogels was investigated. The crystallization and melting behavior, solid fat content (SFC), crystal morphology, polymorphism and mechanical properties of the oleogels were characterized. The oleogels with higher gelator level displayed higher oil binding ability and shorter crystal formation time. The oleogels with higher MAG ratio exhibited more blade-like crystals, and the mixed oleogels with MAG: DAG of 3:7 and 5:5 showed altered crystal morphology with finer crystal size and reduced crystallization enthalpies possibly due to the increased nucleation seeds promoted by MAG. The oleogels with high MAG level showed lower equilibrium SFC during isothermal crystallization but faster crystallization rate, higher hardness and elasticity. Therefore, by changing the ratio of DAG with MAG, the crystallization profile and rheological properties of oleogels can be tailored and used as traditional solid fat substitutes in lipid-based products.
Cold-pressed hempseed oil (HSO) is known to have many health benefits due to many phytochemicals and high polyunsaturated fatty acids content. In this study, HSO oleogels were prepared with 3, 5, and 7% natural waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax to evaluate their potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads. Firmness, crystal structures, and melting properties of these oleogels were evaluated. In general, wax-based HSO oleogels except for RBW-HSO oleogels had lower firmness and weaker crystal network than the corresponding soybean oil (SBO) oleogels. In contrast, RBW-HSO oleogels had similar firmness, comparable or stronger crystal network, and higher melting and crystallization enthalpies compared to those of SBO oleogels. After removing polar compounds from HSO, waxes except for RBW provided oleogels with greater firmness, higher melting and crystallization enthalpies, and stronger crystal network. Therefore, it was concluded that polar compounds negatively affected the physical properties of wax-HSO oleogels but not those of RBW-HSO oleogels. Margarine samples were prepared with SW- and RBW-HSO oleogels, and their firmness and melting properties were examined. The firmness of these margarines indicated that wax-HSO oleogels may achieve the firmness of commercial spreads with less than 3% wax while the firmness of stick margarines cannot be achieved even with 7% wax. Although the properties of wax-HSO oleogels should be further improved, they showed potential as solid fat replacements in margarines and spreads.
Consumers are becoming aware of the relevance of eating low levels of trans and saturated fats in processed foods. In addition, many countries are adopting regulatory measures on the use of these ingredients. For this reason, the exploration of new technologies capable of producing structures that trap liquid oil (composed of unsaturated fatty acids, considered healthier) has been widely investigated in order to replace saturated and trans fats in food products. One of the most promising technologies is the so-called oleogels, which present a great challenge to mimic sensory attributes related to the texture of processed foods based on saturated fats. In this review, we discuss how the different approaches used in the production of oleogels, direct or indirect methods, as well as compositional variables, such as oleogelators and mixing ratio, can directly influence the mechanical properties of these structures. An overview of the parameters that can interfere with these properties contributes to a better understanding of the building of the oleogels and their possible applications.
This study was carried out to optimize formulation for Heracleum Lasiopetalum (golpar) extract nanoencapsulation by response surface methodology (RSM). The primary emulsion was fabricated by (5-10 %) golpar extract (GE), (40-35 %) emulsifier span 80 (EM), and (50-60 %) sunflower oil (SO). The coating materials of nanoencapsulation were the composition of Lepidium sativum seed gum (LSG) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) at different ratios (1:0, 1:1, and 0:1). The yield of nanoencapsulation of golpar extract, particle size, and zeta potential was investigated as responses of RSM. The optimal formulation for nanoencapsulation of golpar extract were SO: 50.46%, GE 9.52%, and EM: 36.30% in LSG, SO: 57.07%, GE: 7.12%, and EM: 30.85% in LSG:WPC, and SO: 54.98%, GE: 9.05%, and EM: 39.87% in WPC coating. In conclusion, the nanoencapsulation of golpar extract prepared with the optimized formulation by RSM ensures the gradual release and sedimentation during storage with nanometric size and high yield of encapsulation. The nanocapsules of golpar extract can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems.
Current research on wax-based oleogels indicates wax esters to be the key component in many natural waxes. This necessitates understanding the properties of pure wax esters to unravel the gelling mechanism in wax-based oleogels. Therefore, wax esters with different carbon numbers and symmetries were studied and characterized regarding their thermal (DSC) and viscoelastic (oscillatory rheology) behavior. Pure wax esters and binary mixtures of wax esters were studied as such and in oleogels formed in combination with medium chained triglyceride oil at WE-inclusion levels of 10 % (w/w). Interpretation of the observations was based on detailed analysis of pre-existing data on crystallographic (SAXS) and thermal properties. It is found that all observations concerning single pure WE’s obey a systematic framework linking molecular make up, crystal structure and behavior. The study on the gelling of four different binary mixtures of wax esters revealed that substantial chain length differences do have the expected consequence of separate crystallization. Mixtures of wax esters with only limited chain length difference reconfirmed earlier speculations on mixing and crystal structure. Applying mixtures of wax esters only differing in their position of the ester bond indicated ideal mixing behavior in the solid phase of the gels. Actually, the data revealed that despite these expected observations in both systems, additional thermal events occur at specific mixing ratios. Their supposed relation to compound formation certainly needs further confirmation. Rheological analysis confirmed that sequential crystallization results in highest firmness values for the systems studied.
Previous studies reported that several amino acids had strong antioxidant activity in vegetable oils under frying conditions. In this study, the carboxylic acid group of amino acids was converted to a carboxylate group (-COO-Na+ or -COO-K+), a heating study was conducted with amino acid salts in soybean oil at 180 ºC. Sodium salts of amino acids including alanine, phenylalanine, and proline and disodium glutamate had significantly stronger antioxidant activity than the corresponding amino acids, and potassium salts had stronger antioxidant activity than sodium salts. Potassium salts of alanine and phenylalanine more effectively retained tocopherols in soybean oil than the corresponding amino acids during heating. Phenylalanine potassium salt had stronger antioxidant activity than phenylalanine in other vegetable oils including olive, high oleic soybean, canola, avocado, and corn oils. Phenylalanine potassium salt at 5.5. mM more effectively prevented oil oxidation than tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), a synthetic antioxidant, at its legal concentration limit (0.02%) indicating its feasibility as a new antioxidant for frying.
Globally, there is an increasing demand for sources of plant-based protein. While Brassica napus L. is an important oilseed crop worldwide, there is also interest in improving its ability to serve as a valuable source of plant-based protein. Cruciferin, a seed storage protein that makes up 60% of the protein found in mature seeds of B. napus, is of interest for human consumption as a source of protein and as an ingredient in food products due to its functional properties. Existing methods for quantification of cruciferin protein are often time consuming and destroy the seed. This study explored the potential for the measurement of cruciferin protein content in whole seeds of B. napus by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), to allow for efficient and non-destructive screening of breeding material. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based reference method was utilized to assess cruciferin content in a diverse population of B. napus. Scanning of whole seed samples produced spectra that were used to develop NIRS calibration equations. Statistical analysis of the calibration results indicated that the NIRS equations developed are poorly suited for prediction of cruciferin content.