ABSTRACT The double-spined spruce bark beetle, Ips duplicatus has become an infamous secondary pest of Norway spruce, causing extensive ecological and economic destruction in many Central European countries. Antennae are the primary olfactory organs that play fundamental role in insect-host chemical communication; therefore, understanding morphology is crucial before conducting electrophysiological investigations. Here, we present our analysis of sensilla types on the antennal surface of I. duplicatus for the first time, using high-resolution-scanning electron microscopy. We studied the external morphological characteristics of antennae and the types, numbers, and distribution of the antennal sensilla in males and females. Our results revealed the presence of five different types of morphologically distinct sensilla: sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, and Bӧhm’s bristles. We observed two subtypes in sensilla chaetica (SChI and SChII), four subtypes in sensilla basiconica (SBI, SBII, SBIII and SBIV), three subtypes in sensilla trichodea (STrII, STrIII and STrIV) and two subtypes in sensilla coeloconica (SCoI and SCoII), respectively in I. duplicatus males and females. Minor differences in length and numbers between the sexes for some sensilla types were found. Distribution maps for different sensillar types were constructed and specific areas for the respective sensilla were found. Possible functions of observed sensilla types are discussed. The present study provides a basis for future electrophysiological studies aimed at understanding how I. duplicatus detects ecologically important olfactory cues.
Aim: This study aimed to use the micro-computed tomography to evaluate the interfacial adaptation and the presence of gaps of NeoMTA Plus, BioRoot RCS, and MTA in the root-end cavities. Methodology: Thirty standardized bovine roots measuring 15 mm in length were selected. Chemical-mechanical preparation was performed up to instrument #80 and obturation with the cold lateral compaction technique with cement based on zinc oxide and eugenol. The roots were kept at 37º C for seven days. Afterward, apicectomy of the apical 3mm and a root-end filling cavity was performed at 3mm depth. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was performed to measure the volume of the retroactivity. The roots were divided by stratified randomization into three groups according to the retro-end filling material: NeoMTA Plus, BioRoot RCS, and MTA. A new micro-CT was performed to assess the presence of voids in the root-end filling material and between it and the canal wall. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were performed using the BioEstat 4.0 program. Results: There was no difference in the initial volume values of the root-end cavities (P > 0.05). After the insertion of root-end filling materials, the most significant volumes of voids were observed in the NeoMTA Plus group (P < 0.05), with no difference for the BioRoot RCS and MTA Angelus groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Micro-computed tomography showed that MTA and BioRoot RCS have better interfacial adaptation and presented fewer number of gaps than NeoMTA Plus when used as root-end filling materials.
We investigated the gross and ultrastructure morphology of the mandibles, labial palpus and mandibular palpus of adult male and female Glenea cantor beetles using scanning electron microscopy. There were significant differences between males and females in the gross and ultrastructure morphology of these parts. Observation of the gross morphology of the mandible, labial palpus and mandibular palpus revealed that their lengths were significantly greater in females, which is mainly related to the oviposition mechanism. In terms of the ultrastructural morphology of the mandibles, labial palpus and mandibular palpus, seven types of sensilla were found on these parts: sensilla twig basiconica (STB I, II, III, and IV), sensilla chaetica (SCh IV and V), Böhm’s bristles (Bb), sensilla placodea (SP), sensilla trichodea (ST II), sensilla plate (SP), sensilla coeloconica (SC) and sensilla campaniformia (SCa). Females have significantly more ST I and SCh III on their mandibles than males. The mechanical sensors SCh and Bb, olfactory sensor ST II, taste sensor STB IV, and carbon dioxide sensor and temperature and humidity sensors SC, SP and SCa were significantly more developed on female than male labial and maxillary palps, which also further explained the important role of the oral appendages in oviposition behavior. These results will help us further understand the host selection and oviposition behavior of adult G. cantor and promote the information-based design of pest control methods.
Sperm morphology is considered a species-specific character and has been used as a tool in the classification of numerous mammalian taxa. Neotropical bats have been poorly studied, and important aspects on sperm morphology have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the sperm morphology and morphometry of Molossus molossus and Molossops temminckii. 14 adults specimens were analyzed from the Colección Mamíferos Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán: five Molossus molossus and nine Molossops temminckii. The epididymis were extracted and macerated in Farmer’s solution, followed by a coloration with different stains. To carry out the description and morphometric analysis, microphotographs were taken under an optical, epifluorescence and scanning electron microscope. A total of 50 sperm from each individual were measured for morphometric analysis. The length and width of the head, midpiece and tail were taken as variables. Sperm from M. molossus and M. temminckii were practically identical, both morphologically and morphometrically. In both species, a distal bulge was observed at the end of the intermediate piece in a percentage greater than 85%. The main characteristics shared between the species were: presence of acrosomal blebs in the upper half of the head of the spermatozoa; cephalic equatorial segment with filiform ornamentations; intermembrane space of head apex wedge-shaped; helical middle piece and annulus at the end of middle piece. In the present study, scanning electron microscopy allowed us to visualize structures, such as acrosomal vesicles, that were not detected with other types of microscopy.
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance of a new nickel-titanium (Flat File 25.04) instrument on continuous and reciprocating motion. Methods: Sixty instruments of the ProDesign Logic2 25.03 and 25.05 (Easy Equipamentos Odontológicos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil), and MK Flat File 25.04 (n=20) (MK Life, Porto Alegre, Brazil) were used. For the cyclic fatigue test, an artificial stainless steel simulated canal with an angle of 60° and a radius of curvature of 5mm located 5mm from its tip was used. Torque and angle of rotation at failure of instruments on torsional fatigue test was based on the ISO 3630-1 protocol, in which the 3mm tip of each instrument was fixed and connected to an electric motor and a load cell. The fractured surface of each fragment was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test with a significance level of 5%. Results: Flat File 25.04 had lower cyclic fatigue in both kinematics than the Logic instruments (P < .05). Reciprocating motion improved the cyclic fatigue of the tested instruments (P < .05). Flat File 25.04 had similar torque to Logic2 25.05 (P < .05), and both were superior to Logic2 25.03 (P < .05). The angular deflection values were different for the three tested instruments (P < .05), in the decreasing order: Logic2 25.03, 25.05, and Flat File 25.04. Conclusion: Flat File presented acceptable resistance to cyclic and torsional fatigue resistance. Reciprocating motion improved the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments and can be considered when using programmable motors.
The depth discrimination in confocal microscopy is based on the digital analysis of depth response signals obtained by each camera pixel during measurement. Various signal processing algorithms are used for this purpose. The accuracy of these algorithms is inter alia restricted by the axial symmetry of the signals. However, in practice response signals are rather asymmetrical especially in case of measurement objects with critical surface structures such as edges or steep flanks. We present a novel signal processing algorithm based on an exponential function with a cubic argument to handle asymmetrical and also symmetrical depth response signals. Results obtained by this algorithm are compared to those of commonly used signal processing algorithms. It turns out that the novel algorithm is more robust, more accurate and exhibits a repeatability of a similar order compared to other algorithms.
Biomass-derived wastes as the additive of non-degradable plastics have been paid more attention due to the ever-growing environmental pollution and energy crisis. Herein, the spent coffee grounds (SCG) have been used as fillers in polypropylene (PP) after the heat treatment to realize its recycling utilization. The effect of the heat treatment atmosphere on the properties of the obtained SCG and SCG/PP composites has been investigated systematically. The results show that the residual coffee oil can be removed more thoroughly under an air atmosphere than under a nitrogen atmosphere at a relatively low cost and an eco-friendly process. The lower residual oil rate of SCG is beneficial to improve the comminution and further enhance the affinity with the PP matrix. The obtained SCG/PP composite holds lower water absorption, higher hydrophobicity, and better mechanical properties, implying its potential applications in the field of food packaging.
This study provides a comprehensive account of the various types of calcium oxalate crystals found in the genus Baccharis and assesses the exceptional value of crystal macropatterns for the taxonomy of the genus. The morphotype, occurrence and chemical composition of the crystals found in the stems and leaves are studied. The 44 species included in this study were selected based on a broad phylogeny-based sampling covering seven subgenera and 31 sections. These species were chosen to represent all the main phylogenetic lineages of Baccharis; thus, the sampling also represents a comprehensive coverage concerning evolutionary significance for such a large and environmentally and economically important plant group. The samples were analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Several morphotypes of crystals, including druses, crystal sand, styloids and prisms, were present. Based on their chemical composition, the crystals were classified as pure calcium oxalate, mixtures of oxalates and sulfates, and mixtures of oxalates, sulfates and silica. The crystal macropatterns observed in this study aid in the species identification and provide novel data for the taxonomy of Baccharis.
The scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) plays a fundamental role in stabilizing the wrist bones, and its disruption is a frequent cause of wrist arthrosis and disfunction. Traditionally, this structure is considered to be a variety of fibrocartilaginous tissue and consists of three regions: dorsal, membranous and palmar. Despite its functional relevance, the exact composition of the human SLIL is not well understood. In the present work, we have analyzed the human SLIL and control tissues from the human hand using an array of histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to characterize each region of this structure. Results reveal that the SLIL is heterogeneous, and each region can be subdivided in two zones that are histologically different to the other zones. Analysis of collagen and elastic fibers, collagens types I, III and IV, proteoglycans, glycoproteins and versican confirmed that the different regions can be subdivided in two zones that have their own structure and composition. The first part of the dorsal region (zone D1) resembles the control tendons and ligaments, whereas the rest of the SLIL are more similar to the control articular cartilage, especially the first part of the membranous region (zone M1). Cells showing a chondrocyte-like phenotype as determined by S100 were more abundant in M1, whereas the zone containing more CD73-positive stem cells was D2. These results confirm the heterogeneity of the human SLIL and could contribute to explain why certain zones of this structure are more prone to structural damage and why other zones have specific regeneration potential.
Understanding the physical, chemical and biological changes that occur during the drying of a bloodstain is important in many aspects of forensic science including bloodstain pattern analysis and time since deposition estimation. This research assesses the use of optical profilometry to analyze changes in the surface morphology of degrading bloodstains created using three different volumes (4, 11, and 20 µL) up to four weeks after deposition. We analyzed six surface characteristics, including surface average roughness, kurtosis, skewness, maximum height, number of cracks and pits, and height distributions from the topographical scans obtained from bloodstains. Full and partial optical profiles were obtained to examine long-term (minimum of 1.5 hour intervals) and short-term (5 minute intervals) changes. The majority of the changes in surface characteristics occurred within the first 35 minutes after bloodstain deposition, in agreement with current research in bloodstain drying. Optical profilometry is a non-destructive and efficient method to obtain surface profiles of bloodstains, and can be integrated easily into additional research workflows including but not limited to time since deposition estimation.