Objectives To explore the impact of COVID-19 on the management and outcomes of acute paediatric mastoiditis across the UK. Design National retrospective and prospective audit Setting 48 UK secondary care ENT departments Participants Consecutive children aged 18 years or under, referred to ENT with a clinical diagnosis of mastoiditis. Main outcome measures Cases were divided into: Period 1 (01/11/19-15/03/20) before the UK population were instructed to reduce social contact, and Period 2 (16/03/20-30/04/21), following this. Periods 1&2 were compared for population variables, management and outcomes. Secondary analyses compared outcomes by primary treatment (medical/needle aspiration/surgical). Results 286 cases met criteria (median 4 per site, range 0-24). 9.4 cases were recorded per week in period 1 versus 2.0 in period 2, with no winter increase in cases in Dec 2020-Feb 2021. Patient age differed between period 1&2 (3.2 Vs 4.7 years respectively, p<0.001). 85% of children in period 2 were tested for COVID-19 with a single positive test. In period 2 cases associated with P. aeruginosa significantly increased. 48.6% of children were scanned in period 1 vs 41.1% in period 2. Surgical management was used more frequently in period 1 (43.0% Vs 24.3%, p=0.001). Treatment success was high, with failure of initial management in 6.3%, and 30-day re-admission for recurrence in 2.1%. The adverse event rate (15.7% overall) did not vary by treatment modality or between periods 1& 2. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant change in the presentation and case-mix of acute paediatric mastoiditis in the UK.
Abstract Objective: Although various guidelines have been established for the management of antithrombotic therapy during surgical treatments, surgical tracheostomy (ST) under continued antithrombotic therapy (CAT) remains a challenge. We investigated the risk factors for complications after ST by focusing on CAT use during ST. Method: Patients’ medical records from 2009 to 2020 were reviewed in this retrospective study. We selected patients who underwent ST at the Department of Otolaryngology of the University of Tokyo Hospital. Patient demographics, complications, and blood test values were recorded and statistically analyzed to identify the risk factors for postoperative complications. Results: We identified 288 patients (median age: 64 years; 184 men [64%]), among whom 40 (median age: 67 years; 29 men [73%]) underwent CAT. Although the patients undergoing CAT had significantly higher values of activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.002) and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (p = 0.006) than those of antithrombotic naïve patients, no statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in the risks of bleeding, infection, or subcutaneous emphysema. Instead, ST under local anesthesia (p = 0.01) and ST for airway emergency (p = 0.02) significantly increased the risk of early postoperative complications. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that ST under CAT can be safely performed without any increased risk of postoperative complications. Nevertheless, surgeons should be extra cautious about early complications after ST under local anesthesia without intubation or ST for airway emergency. Key points: 1. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for complications after ST by focusing on CAT use during ST. 2. Patients undergoing CAT had significantly higher values of APTT and PT-INR than those of antithrombotic naïve patients. 3. ST under CAT can be safely performed without any increased risk of postoperative complications. 4. ST under local anesthesia and airway emergency was a risk factor for complications after ST. 5. Among the complications, subcutaneous emphysema was significantly more frequent in ST under local anesthesia and under airway emergency.
Key Points • Transnasal Oesophagoscopy (TNO) is an approach to inspect the upper aerodigestive tract, especially in the head and neck cancer (HNCA) population that present with dysphagia. • Twenty-five (25) office-based TNO procedures were performed, with a same-day discharge rate of 96% (24/25) and no reported complications. • This case series is the first to compare preoperative and postoperative outcomes (EAT-10) following stricture dilatation using TNO in the UK. Our results show a statistically significant improvement in symptom severity (EAT-10 scores) (n=11, P=0.001). In the majority of these patients, strictures were due to post-radiation complications. Biopsy in 4/5 cases was sufficient for diagnosis/ruling out disease. Of these patients, 80% had a previous HNCA. • This study identifies the remit for a new ‘one-stop’ TNO service for suspected cancer referrals, of which a large proportion are patients with a previous HNCA. Surveillance, therapeutics and diagnostics can be achieved in a single visit. • Earlier staging or treatment may be achieved due to a fast turnover in clinic
Objectives As we pass the anniversary of the declaration of a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation, it invites us to reflect upon the inescapable changes that coronavirus has wrought upon ENT and, in particular, rhinological practice. As it remains unclear when we will globally emerge from the shadow of COVID-19, a critical analysis of the evidence base on both the assessment and mitigation of risk is vital for ENT departments worldwide. This article presents a systematic review of the literature examining articles which consider either the quantification of risk or strategies to mitigate risk specifically in the setting of rhinological surgery. Design Systematic literature review. Results The literature search yielded a total of 3406 returns with 24 articles meeting eligibility criteria. A narrative synthesis stratified results into two broad themes: those which made an assessment as to the aerosolisation of droplets during sinus surgery, further subdivided into work which considered macroscopically visible droplets and that which considered smaller particles, and those studies which examined the mitigation of this risk. Conclusion Studies considering the aerosolisation of both droplets and smaller particles suggest endonasal surgery carries significant risk. Whilst results both highlight a range of innovative adjunctive strategies and support suction as an important variable to reduce aerosolisation, appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) should be considered mandatory for all healthcare professionals involved in rhinological surgery given studies have demonstrated that close adherence to PPE use is effective at preventing COVID-19 infection.
Objective: To investigate the symptomatic relief and functional preservation of a novel surgical strategy combined with triple semicircular canal occlusion and endolymphatic sac decompression in patients with intractable Meniere’s disease. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: Patients with intractable Meniere’s disease in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University between July 2015 and June 2019. Participants: Data from 46 patients diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, and underwent surgery Methods: Triple semicircular canal occlusion combined with endolymphatic sac decompression was performed in all patients with intractable Meniere’s disease. Pre- and postoperative vertigo attacks, hearing levels, tinnitus, aural fullness, and equilibrium function rehabilitation were analyzed at defined time points during follow-up. Results: A significant vertigo control rate was observed in all patients postoperatively. The overall control rate of vertigo postoperatively was 100% in the entire follow-up, with a complete control rate of 97.8% and a substantial control rate of 2.2%. The rate of hearing preservation was 54.35%, and all patients suffering from hearing deterioration were at stages III and IV. The rate of tinnitus and aural fullness alleviation was 65.8% and 100%, respectively. Four patients failed to regain the equilibrium function postoperatively. Conclusion: Combining triple semicircular canal occlusion with endolymphatic sac decompression is an efficient strategy for vertigo control in patients with intractable Meniere’s disease. Patients in advanced stages suffered more from hearing function deterioration. Hearing preservation and tinnitus alleviation warrant further investigation.
Key Points: 1. We have identified ambiguity in the current guidance on thyroid MDT’s, and have also found nationwide variation in compliance with this. 2. We recommend: a. All surgeons undertaking thyroid surgery should complete a minimum of 20 thyroid procedures per year, and this should also form part of surgeons’ annual appraisal. b. All surgeons should contribute data to UKRETS (unless prevented by local legal frameworks) and this should form part of surgeons’ annual appraisal and be audited by individual MDT’s and regional cancer networks. c. Thyroid MDT’s should be held weekly where possible, with a minimum frequency of fortnightly. d. The core membership of a thyroid MDT (stand alone and joint) should include thyroid surgeons, specialist radiology, endocrinology, nuclear medicine, nurse specialists, histopathology +/- cytology and clinical oncology.
ABSTRACT Objectives Anecdotal evidence suggests that oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) should be suspected in patients presenting with symptoms of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) or cellulitis (PTC). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of OPSCC in patients presenting with symptoms of PTA/PTC. Method, Setting and Participants We retrospectively identified all adults with a coded diagnosis of PTA or PTC who presented between 2012-2016 inclusive, across six ENT units in ——–. Records were compared to that of the centralised regional head and neck cancer database. The clinical records of a subset of patients were reviewed for the purposes of data validation. Results A total of 1975 patients with PTA/PTC were identified. Three patients were subsequently diagnosed with OPSCC. None of the three actually had an objective underlying diagnosis of PTA/PTC on the same side. The prevalence of OPSCC in patients admitted with symptoms of PTA/PTC was 0.15%, or approximately 1:650 admissions. The records of 510 patients who presented over a one-year period (2016) were reviewed in even greater detail. There were 298 patients with PTA (59.4%), 151 with PTC (29.1%) and 61 had an alternative diagnosis (11.9%). High risk features (age ≥40, tonsillar asymmetry or tonsillar lesion) were present in 106 patients (24%). Urgent follow up was expedited for 77 patients (73%). Conclusion This study estimates the risk of OPSCC in patients with peritonsillar symptoms. The prevalence is low, even in a region with a relatively heavy disease burden. Clinicians should, however, retain a high level of suspicion in patients with persistent symptoms.
Objectives: Our study aimed to identify potential factors that influence rehabilitation outcomes in late-implanted adolescents and adults with prelingual deafness and attempted to develop a reliable nomogram. Design: This retrospective study included 120 subjects less than 30 years of age who had received cochlear implantation at a single medical center. The Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale was used to evaluate the rehabilitation outcomes. A nomogram was constructed using the R and EmpowerStats software. Results: Univariate analysis indicated higher rates of auditory performance improvement in younger aged subjects. Residual hearing and regular and longer implant use were more common among subjects showing auditory performance improvement. Multivariate analysis identified residual hearing (Hazard Ratio, 6.11; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.83-20.41; P<0.01), age at implantation (Hazard Ratio, 0.31; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.14-0.83; P=0.02) and regular CI use (Hazard Ratio, 7.79; 95% Confidence Interval, 2.50-24.20; P<0.01) as independent predictors for auditory performance improvement. The nomogram’s predictive performance was satisfactory as verified by the calibration curve and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Conclusions: We demonstrated that residual hearing, younger age, and regular CI use were associated with auditory performance improvement in this cochlear implant user population. Our nomogram model demonstrated satisfactory predictive performance for this population.
Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) is a known complication of thyroid surgery, due to iatrogenic recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, with reported rates of 2-5% in children. The gold standard for assessing vocal cord function in flexible nasendoscopy (FNE) examination, which is considered high-risk for contraction of the COVID-19 virus. Intraoperative ultrasonographic assessment (IUA) of vocal cord function is a non-invasive and relatively simple procedure, performed in a supine position under general anesthesia. Objectives: To evaluate the validity of IUA modality in children undergoing thyroidectomy, and to compare it to the standard FNE. Design: A prospective double-blind study covering 24 months (March 2019-March 2021). Twenty thyroid lobectomies were performed, during 15 surgeries. Vocal cord function was assessed three times: Preoperatively by FNE, intraoperative (IUA) following extubation, and a second FNE on the first post-operative day. Settings: A tertiary pediatric hospital. Results: The overall accuracy of IUA results in our study was 92%. IUA sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 89%, 33%, and 100% respectively. Patient’s age demonstrated borderline significance (p= 0.08). The resident’s experience was associated with a better correlation between IUA and FNE results (p<0.05). Conclusions: IUA of vocal cord motion has a high accuracy rate for detection of iatrogenic vocal cord paralysis, similar to FNE. It is easily learned by residents, well tolerated by children, and it provides a safe and valid alternative modality while ensuring the safety of the medical staff in treating patients, especially in times of COVID-19 pandemic.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was the evaluation of any alterations in the microvascular network of the nasal mucosa in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and the investigation of potential correlations with olfactory acuity and serum levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (sACE). Design: Patients’ nasal mucosa was examined with contact endoscopy (CE). A novel classification scheme for the microvascular pattern at the anterior septal mucosa (Little’s area) was introduced and implemented. Olfaction was tested using sniffin’sticks. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. Participants: 15 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and sinonasal symptoms. Main outcome measures: Microvascular pattern at the anterior septal mucosa (Little’s area). Olfaction tested using sniffin’sticks. Setting: Tertiary referral medical centre. Results: The nasal microvascular network was disrupted under CE in most (14/15) patients, while in one patient no microvascular net could be detected. Moreover, hyposmia was documented in four patients and complete anosmia in one patient. In healthy subjects, a very strong correlation between vascular pattern of the mucosa and olfactory test results was found (r=0.93). Conclusions: Contact endoscopy findings show promise and should be further tested, to evaluate their validity as a surrogate marker of mucosal nasal inflammation in sarcoidosis patients with sinonasal symptoms. Vascular patterns of nasal mucosa and olfaction seem to be strong correlated.
Remote communication in ENT has been expanding, spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Conferences and teaching have moved online, enabling easier participation, and reducing financial and environmental costs. Online multi-disciplinary meetings have recently been instigated in Africa to discuss management of cases in head and neck cancer, or cochlear implantation, expanding access and enhancing patient care. Remote patient consultation has also seen an explosion, but existing literature suggests some caution, particularly because many patients in ENT need an examination to enable definitive diagnosis. Ongoing experience and more research is needed to better understand how remote communication will fit into our future working lives, both during and after the pandemic.
5 succinct/key points 1. There is a considerable burden to outpatient head and neck cancer (HaNC) surveillance, and it is unclear to what extent the current recommendations facilitate the detection of HaNC. 2. Our 100 patient retrospective analysis demonstrated three asymptomatic recurrences (all within the first year of follow up) and 20 symptomatic recurrences (mean time to recurrence of 21.4 months). 3. Seventy-four percent of those patients who recurred did so within the first two years following primary treatment, increasing up to 83% by three years. 4. We believe the value of routine follow up is more apparent within the first two to three years following primary treatment as this is when the rate of recurrence is highest. 5. We anticipate larger trials investigating the efficacy of an initial two years of frequent follow up followed by longer-term patient-led follow up.
Objectives: This study aims to (i) investigate post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia amongst adults intubated with SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) and referred to speech and language therapy (SLT) in acute hospitals across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) between March and June 2020; (ii) identify variables predictive of post-extubation oral intake status and dysphonia and (iii) establish SLT rehabilitation needs and services provided to this cohort. Design: A multi-site prospective observational cohort study Participants: 100 adults with confirmed COVID-19 who were intubated across eleven acute hospital sites in ROI and who were referred to SLT services between March and June 2020 inclusive. Main Outcome Measures: Oral intake status, level of diet modification and perceptual voice quality. Results: Based on initial SLT assessment, 90% required altered oral intake and 59% required tube feeding with 36% unable for oral intake. Age (OR 1.064; 95% CI 1.018-1.112), proning (OR 3.671; 95% CI 1.128-11.943), and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 5.863; 95% CI 1.521-11.599) were predictors of oral intake status post-extubation. Two-thirds (66%) presented with dysphonia post-extubation. Intubation injury (OR 10.471; 95% CI 1.060-103.466) and pre-existing respiratory disease (OR 24.196; 95% CI 1.609-363.78) were predictors of post-extubation voice quality. Thirty-seven percent required dysphagia rehabilitation post-extubation whereas 20% needed voice rehabilitation. Dysphagia and dysphonia persisted in 27% and 37% cases respectively at hospital discharge. Discussion: Post-extubation dysphagia and dysphonia were prevalent amongst adults with COVID-19 across the ROI. Predictors included iatrogenic factors and underlying respiratory disease. Prompt evaluation and intervention is needed to minimise complications and inform rehabilitation planning.
Background A dose of 5mg/kg lidocaine is considered appropriate for paediatric airway topicalisation. Existing literature suggests younger children are susceptible to toxic lidocaine plasma levels and achieve this at a faster rate. Aims The primary outcome of this study was to ascertain peak plasma lidocaine levels after topicalisation for airway endoscopy. Secondary endpoints included: time to peak lidocaine plasma levels, signs of lidocaine toxicity (restricted to ECG changes or seizures when under anaesthesia) and clinical adverse events of laryngospasm, coughing or desaturation during the procedure. Methods Data was collected prospectively over 18 months at Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital. Children aged 0-8 years undergoing elective diagnostic or therapeutic airway endoscopy were included within the study. Standardised 2% lidocaine was used for airway topicalisation. Dose varied depending upon practitioner usual practice. Venous blood sampling occurred at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes post administration and plasma lidocaine levels (ng/ml) analysed. Results A significant relationship exists between higher peak plasma levels and ages <18 months (p=0.00973). Strong linear correlation exists between weight and age for our cohort (r=0.88). Higher peak plasma lidocaine levels occur with total dose volumes between 2 and 3mls of 2% lidocaine local anaesthetic (p=0.03) compared with <2ml total dose volumes. Data suggests a potential relationship of lower weights achieving higher peak plasma levels (p=0.0516). Reduced IQR variation of peak plasma lidocaine levels exists when lidocaine dosing is <5mg/kg. Conclusions Age and total dose volume of topicalised lidocaine have a significant relationship with plasma lidocaine levels. A dose of 5mg/kg topicalised lidocaine for paediatric airway endoscopy is safe and provides good operating conditions. Lower patient weights trend toward higher peak lidocaine plasma concentrations and require further investigation.
Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence and recovery of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Design: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Setting and Participants: In total 599 outpatients’ cases polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–confirmed COVID-19-positive patients in Golestan province were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: The incidence of OD, GD, their severity and the time of recovery was determined. The association of these variables with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction was assessed. Results: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7%, and dyspnea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhea 25.2%, nausea 20.5%, and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74%, respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56±13.37 and 13.8±3.77 days, respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45±4.55. There were significant associations between CT value with headache (P=0.04), GD (P=0.002) and OD (P=0.001). Conclusions: The intensity and the recovery of OD and GD in Covid-19 patients may be affected by initial viral load. Unlike to respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, the OD and GD were associated with lower viral load. Therefore, it may be recommended to use these clinical symptoms as an indicator in the initial screening of patients during pandemics.
Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between Bethesda category and molecular mutation of thyroid nodules in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Design: A retrospective cohort of patients who underwent thyroidectomy following needle biopsy and molecular profile testing was performed. Setting: Two tertiary care academic hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients with a dominant thyroid nodule who underwent both USFNA and molecular profile testing followed by thyroidectomy were included in the study. Main Outcome and Measures: The main outcome was postoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer and aggressivity of disease based on histopathological variants, nodal metastasis or extra-thyroidal extension. Associations between Bethesda category, molecular mutation and postoperative pathology was assessed using descriptive analysis and Chi-square testing. Results: 451 patients were included. 95.9% (93/97) of patients with a BRAFV600E mutation had a Bethesda category V or VI (P<0.001), and all had confirmed thyroid cancer on postoperative pathology. Those with H, K or N RAS or EIF1AX mutations, gene expression profiling (GEP) or copy number alterations showed an association with Bethesda categories III and IV (P≤0.01). Those with no identified molecular mutation had a lower incidence of aggressive thyroid cancer compared to those with an identified mutation (12.6% vs 44.3%, P<0.01). Conclusion: BRAFV600E mutations were associated with thyroid cancer subtypes known to be more aggressive. These findings may help thyroid specialists better identify aggressive thyroid nodules associated with indeterminate Bethesda categories.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify factors that could influence the repair of eardrum perforation using cartilage graft (or cartilage tympanoplasty) in children. Methods: A cohort of children operated on between January 1998 and December 2012 was reviewed. We have studied the repair rate of the eardrum (anatomical result) and the hearing level with audiometric tests (functional result) at 1 year and 3 years after surgery. These results were correlated with size or location of the perforation, status of the contralateral ear, gender, allergies, cleft palate, craniofacial anomalies, expertise of the surgeon (junior, senior) and perioperative observations (mucosa, glue, etc.). Results: 1240 tympanoplasties were selected from the database, of which 139 ears (127 patients) could be analysed (perforation without concurrent disease, authorisation from patients obtained and sufficient information reported). Mean age at surgery was 9.6 years ± 2.6 (range 4-16). At one year, 129/139 (93%) tympanic membranes were closed and 112/139 (81%) were satisfactory (no residual perforation, nor retraction, cholesteatoma, myringitis or OME). Air-bone gap was < 20 dB in 102/127 ears (80%). At 3 years, the eardrum was closed in 64/66 (97%) ears (reperforation in one case) and 82% were satisfactory. Myringitis occurred in 5% and 9% of cases at one- and three-year follow-up. Surgery before the age of 8 years was the only risk factor of a non-satisfactory result at one-year follow-up (p = 0.024). Conclusions: Long-term results were satisfactory; the only risk factor was surgery before eight years of age. In the child, long-term yearly follow-up is necessary after tympanic perforation.