Background Recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein (rFIX-Fc) is an extended half-life (EHL) factor concentrate administered to haemophilia B patients. So far, a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model has only been published for patients ≥12 years of age. Aim Assess the predictive performance of the published rFIX-Fc population PK model for patients of all ages and develop a model that describes rFIX-Fc PK using real world data. Methods We collected prospective and retrospective data from patients with haemophilia B (FIX activity level ≤5 IU/dL) treated with rFIX-Fc and included in the OPTI-CLOT TARGET study (NTR7523) or United Kingdom (UK)-EHL Outcome Registry (NCT02938156). Predictive performance was assessed by comparing predicted with observed FIX activity levels. A novel population PK model was constructed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results Real world data was obtained from 37 patients (median age: 16 years, range 2-71) of whom 14 were <12 years of age. Observed FIX activity levels were significantly higher than levels predicted using the published model, with a median prediction error (PE) of -48.8%. The novel model showed a lower median PE (3.4%) and better described rFIX-Fc PK, especially for children <12 years of age. In the novel model, an increase in age was correlated with a decrease in clearance (p<0.01). Conclusion The published population PK model significantly underpredicted FIX activity levels. The novel model better describes rFIX-Fc PK, especially for children <12 years of age. This study underlines the necessity to strive for representative population PK models, thereby avoiding extrapolation outside the studied population.
Introduction: A key reason for the failure of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment is missed doses (instances where medication is not taken). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are one cause of missed doses, but the global evidence for this, their relative contribution to missed doses versus other causes, the patterns of missed doses due to ADRs, and the specific ADRs associated with missed doses have not been appraised. We sought to address these questions through a scoping review. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were searched on 3 November 2021 using terms around active TB, missed doses and treatment challenges. Studies reporting both ADR and missed dose data were examined. (PROSPERO: CRD42022295209). Results: Searches identified 108 eligible studies. 88/108 (81%) studies associated ADRs with an increase in missed doses. 33/61 (54%) studies documenting the reasons for missed doses gave ADRs as a primary reason. No studies examined patterns of missed doses due to ADRs. 41/108 (38%) studies examined associations between 68 types of ADR (across 15 organ systems) and missed doses. Nuance around ADR-missed doses relations regarding drug susceptibility testing profile and missed dose originator was found. Conclusions: There is extensive evidence that ADRs are a key driver for missed doses of anti-TB treatment. Some papers examined specific ADRs, none evaluated the patterns of missed doses due to ADRs, demonstrating a knowledge deficit. Knowing why doses both are and are not missed due to ADRs is essential in providing targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes.
Aim To evaluate the performance of ChatGPT in key areas of clinical pharmacy practice, including prescription review, patient medication education, adverse drug reaction (ADR) recognition, ADR causality assessment, and drug counseling. Methods Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted to assess the accuracy and quality of ChatGPT in comparison to those of the clinical pharmacist. Results The results indicate that ChatGPT is excellent in drug counseling and weak in prescription review, patient medication education, ADR recognition, and ADR causality. Conclusions While ChatGPT holds promise in clinical pharmacy practice as a supplementary tool, the ability of ChatGPT to handle complex problems needs further improvement and refinement.
Aims Information on breastfeeding and the safety of biologics in infants is lacking due to difficulties in case collection. We evaluated a method for determining the concentration of biologics in breast milk using a dry filter method that can simplify the collection, storage, and transport of breast milk. Methods To generate dried filter paper (DFP) samples, approximately 30 L of breast milk was placed onto a Whatman 903 card and punched out. After extraction, the supernatant was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three concentrations of each drug were prepared in liquid breast milk (LBM) and DFP samples for stability testing, which confirmed that samples were stable up to 28 days after storage at 2–8 ºC or -20 ºC for LBM and at 25±5 ºC for DFP. LBM and DFP samples were provided by lactating mothers using biologics during lactation. Drug concentrations were compared. Results Breast milk was provided by 12 lactating mothers (tocilizumab, n=4; abatacept, n=2; etanercept, n=1; golimumab, n=1; sarilumab, n=1; and belimumab, n=3). The accuracy and precision of measurements for the six drugs were within acceptable limits. After 28 days, concentrations remained at more than 90% under all storage conditions. The quantitative values of the provided LBM and DFP samples were similar. The maximum relative infant dose ranged from 0.09% to 1.12%, which was an acceptable range. Conclusion A method for determining the concentration of biologics using DFP is expected to help improve pharmacotherapy for lactating women.
The potential of using chatGPT in pharmacometrics was explored in this study, with a focus on developing a pharmacokinetic (PK) model for standard half-life factor VIII. Our results demonstrated that chatGPT can be utilized to accurately obtain typical PK parameters from literature, generate a population PK model in R, and develop an interactive Shiny application to visualize the results. ChatGPT’s language generation capabilities enabled the development of R codes with minimal programming knowledge and helped identify and fix errors in the code. While chatGPT presents several advantages, such as its ability to streamline the development process, its use in pharmacometrics also has limitations and challenges, including the accuracy and reliability of AI-generated data, the lack of transparency and interpretability of AI. Overall, our study demonstrates the potential of using chatGPT in pharmacometrics, but researchers must carefully evaluate its use for their specific needs.
Tamoxifen is the most used hormonal therapy for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. CYP2D6 is the main enzyme in the metabolic pathway of tamoxifen to endoxifen. Variations in endoxifen plasma concentrations are associated with CYP2D6 polymorphisms. This study aimed to determine the association between the CYP2D6 polymorphisms and endoxifen plasma concentrations in a cohort of Zimbabwean breast cancer patients (n = 40). TaqMan genotyping and copy number assays were done to determine CYP2D6 genotypes. Tamoxifen and metabolites were quantitated using LC-MS/MS. The population had high frequencies of the CYP2D6 reduced function alleles, *17 (15%) and *29 (18%). The median endoxifen concentration was 4.78 ng/ml and 55% of the patients, mostly intermediate metabolizers were below the endoxifen therapeutic threshold 5.97 ng/ml. The CYP2D6 phenotypes and activity scores were significantly associated with endoxifen plasma concentrations (p = 0.0151) and with endoxifen to N-desmethyl tamoxifen ratios (p = 0.0006).
Purpose Chemodenervation with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) is the preferred method for focal spasticity management among various treatment options. While BoNTA injection is considered safe, its widespread use and increasing evidence raise safety concerns. Case In this paper, we present a patient with central pontine myelinolysis, a rare disease, who developed Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) on the third day after BoNTA application to the spastic gastrocnemius muscle group and required intubation in the intensive care unit due to this complication. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature to develop an acute pulmonary complication after BoNTA injection into spastic lower extremity muscles.
Whole bowel irrigation is a method of gastric decontamination in the poisoned patient involving administration of large volumes of osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution to empty the gastrointestinal tract of ingested toxins before absorption, limiting systemic toxicity. While this approach may seem intuitive and it can lead to expulsion of tablets or packets in the rectal effluent, there is a lack of evidence correlating this with improved patient outcomes. Administration of whole bowel irrigation is also challenging to the inexperienced physician and associated with adverse effects, which may be serious. Recommendations for the consideration of whole bowel irrigation are limited to patients who have ingested modified release preparations, those of have ingested pharmaceuticals not adsorbed by activated charcoal, and for the removal of packages in body packers. Until more robust evidence is available from high-quality prospective studies demonstrating efficacy, the use of whole bowel irrigation should not be used routinely in poisoned patients.
Background: Several medicinal treatments for avoiding post-operative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. This network meta-analysis aimed to explore the relative effectiveness of these different treatments on ileus outcome measures. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatments for post-operative ileus following abdominal surgery. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed. Direct and indirect comparisons of all regimens were simultaneously compared using random-effects network meta-analysis. Results: A total of 38 randomised controlled trials were included in this network meta-analysis reporting on 6371 patients. Our network meta-analysis shows that prokinetics significantly reduce the duration of first gas (Mean difference (MD) (hours) – 16; credible interval - 30, - 3.1; surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) 0.418), duration of first bowel movements (Mean difference (MD) (hours) -25; credible interval - 39, - 11; SUCRA 0.25) and duration of post-operative hospitalisation (Mean difference (MD) (hours) – 1.9; credible interval – 3.8, - 0.040; SUCRA 0.34). Opioid antagonists are the only treatment that significantly improve the duration of food recovery (Mean difference (MD) (hours) - 19; credible interval - 26, - 14; SUCRA 0.163). Conclusion: Based on our meta-analysis, the two most consistent pharmacological treatments able to effectively reduce POI after abdominal surgery are prokinetics and opioid antagonists. The absence of clear superiority of one treatment over another highlights the limits of the pharmacological principles available.
The practice of documenting pharmacists’ interventions (PIs) has been endorsed by many hospital pharmacists’ societies and organizations worldwide. Current systems for recording PIs have been developed to generate data on better patient and healthcare outcomes, but harmonization and transferability are apparently minimal. The present work aims to provide a descriptive and comprehensive overview of the currently utilized PIs documentation and classification (D/C) tools contributing to increased evidence systematization. A systematic literature search was conducted in PUBMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Studies from 2008, after the release of the Basel Statements, were included if interventions were made by the hospital or clinical pharmacists in a global hospital setting. Publications quality assessment was accomplished using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). A total of 26 studies were included. Three studies did not refer to the D/C method, 10 used an in-house developed D/C method, seven used externally developed D/C tools and six studies described method validation or translation. Evidence confirmed that most of the D/C systems are designed in-house, but external development and validation of PI systems to be used in hospital practice is gradually increasing. Reports on validated PIs D/C tools that are being used in hospital clinical practice are limited, including countries with advanced hospital pharmacy practice. Unmet needs and gaps in practice were identified. Further research should be conducted to understand why using validated D/C methods is not a disseminated practice, knowing patients’ and organizational advantages.
AIMS The aim of this umbrella review was to identify tools and guidelines available to aid the deprescribing process of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM), evaluate their methods of development and validation, and describe at what level of evidence medications are included in the tools and guidelines. METHODS Searches were conducted on MEDLINE(Ovid), Embase.com, Cochrane CDSR, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science Core Collection, and guideline databases from the date of inception to July 7, 2022. We described and compared the different characteristics and contents of tools and guidelines. RESULTS From 10,606 records screened, 23 systematic reviews and guidelines met the inclusion criteria. We then identified 90 tools (67 explicit, 12 mixed, 11 implicit), and 9 guidelines. The majority were developed for use in older adults (n = 74). Nineteen tools targeted older adults with limited life expectancy (LLE), and 7 targeted children <18 years. The majority (97%) of explicit/mixed tools were validated through Delphi techniques (n = 61). Two tools and eight guidelines provided information on the level of evidence for the included medications, of which less than a quarter were included based on high-quality evidence. CONCLUSION Existing tools are available for a diversity of populations. Discrepancies identified in categorizing medications as appropriate or not can be a result of low quality evidence. Particularly, tools for patients with LLE were developed based on very limited evidence, and research to generate this evidence is highly needed. Our medication lists, along with the level of evidence, could facilitate efforts to strengthen the evidence.
Aim: This study evaluated the effects of SHR0302 on the pharmacokinetics of cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe substrates. Methods: We performed a single-center, open-label, three-period drug-drug interaction (DDI) study in 24 healthy subjects (NCT05392127). Subjects received a single oral dose of 5 mg warfarin (CYP2C9), 20 mg omeprazole (CYP2C19), and 15 mg midazolam (CYP3A4) on day 1, 8, and 22, and received 0.5 mg repaglinide (CYP2C8) on day 7, 14, and 28. Multiple oral doses of 8 mg SHR0302 were administered once daily from day 8 to day 28. Results: The exposure of S-warfarin and repaglinide were comparable before and after SHR0302 administration. AUC of midazolam was not affected by SHR0302, whereas the administration of SHR0302 slightly decreased the Cmax of midazolam by 7.6% (single dose) and 15.7% (once daily for 14 days). The AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, and Cmax of omeprazole were slightly decreased after a single dose of SHR0302 by 19.2%, 21.8%, and 23.5%, respectively. In the presence of SHR0302 for 14 days, the AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, and Cmax of omeprazole were marginally reduced by 3.0%, 16.4%, and 8.3%, respectively. According to the induction mechanism of the CYP enzyme, for the investigation of the induction effect, the results of multiple administration of the perpetrator were more reliable than those of the single dose. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that co-administration of SHR0302 is unlikely to have a clinically meaningful effect on the exposure of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 in healthy subjects.
C. Abstract AIM: Sevoflurane is an ether-based inhalational anesthetic that induces and maintains general anesthesia. Our study aimed to detect sevoflurane-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using Data Mining Algorithms (DMAs) and molecular docking. The FAERS database was analyzed using OpenVigil 2.1 for disproportionality analysis. Methods: We analyzed FAERS data from 2004 to 2022 to determine the incidence of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus associated with sevoflurane. Reporting Odds Ratios (RORs) and Proportional Odds Ratios (PRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We also used molecular docking with AutoDock Vina to examine sevoflurane’s binding affinity to relevant receptors. Results: A total of 554 nephrogenic diabetes insipidus cases were reported in FAERS, of which 2.5% (14 cases) were associated with sevoflurane. Positive signals were observed for sevoflurane with reporting odds ratios (ROR) of 76.012 (95% CI: 44.67-129.35) and proportional odds ratios (PRR) of 75.72 (Chi-sq: 934.688). Of the 14 cases, 50% required hospitalization, 14% resulted in death, and the remaining cases were categorized as other outcomes. Molecular docking analysis showed that sevoflurane exhibited high binding affinity towards AQP2 (4NEF) and AVRP2 (6U1N) with docking scores of -4.9 and -5.3, respectively. Conclusion: Sevoflurane use is significantly associated with the incidence of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Healthcare professionals should be cautious when using this medication and report any adverse events to regulatory agencies. Further research is needed to validate these findings and identify risk factors while performing statistical adjustments to prevent false-positives. Clinical monitoring is crucial to validate potential adverse effects of Sevoflurane.
Aim Dysfunction of nitric oxide (NO) – soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) – cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling is implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and dementia. Zagociguat is a central nervous system-(CNS-) penetrant sGC stimulator designed to amplify NO-cGMP signalling in the CNS. This article reports on a phase 1b study evaluating the safety and pharmacodynamic effects of zagociguat. Methods In this randomized crossover study, 24 healthy participants ≥65 years of age were planned to receive 15 mg zagociguat or placebo once daily for two 15-day periods separated by a 27-day washout. Adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests to assess safety. Pharmacokinetics of zagociguat were evaluated in blood and CSF. Pharmacodynamic assessments included evaluation of cerebral blood flow, CNS tests, pharmaco-electroencephalography, passive leg movement, and biomarkers in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. Results Twenty-four participants were enrolled and 12 participants completed both treatment periods, while 12 participants completed only one treatment period. Zagociguat was well tolerated and penetrated the blood-brain barrier. Zagociguat induced modest decreases in blood pressure. No consistent effects of zagociguat on other pharmacodynamic parameters were detected. Conclusion Zagociguat was well tolerated and induced modest systemic blood pressure reductions consistent with other sGC stimulators. No clear pharmacodynamic effects of zagociguat were detected, perhaps due to optimal CNS function in healthy participants. Studies in participants with proven reduced cerebral blood flow or CNS function may be an avenue for further evaluation of the compound.
Aims: Older adults are vulnerable to medication-related harm mainly due to high use of medications and inappropriate prescribing. This study aimed to investigate the associations between inappropriate prescribing and number of medications identified at discharge from geriatric rehabilitation with subsequent post-discharge health outcomes. Method: REStORing health of acutely unwell adulTs (RESORT) is an observational, longitudinal cohort study of geriatric rehabilitation inpatients. Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential prescribing omissions (PPOs) were measured at acute admission, and at admission and discharge from geriatric rehabilitation, using version 2 of the STOPP/START criteria. Results: 1890 patients (mean age 82.6 ± 8.1 years, 56.3 % females) were included. The use of at least 1 PIMs, or PPOs at geriatric rehabilitation discharge were not associated with 30-day and 90-day readmission and 3-month and 12-month mortality. Central nervous system (CNS)/psychotropics and fall risk PIMs were significantly associated with 30-day hospital readmission (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.53; 95%CI 1.09─2.15), and cardiovascular PPOs with 12-month mortality (AOR 1.34; 95%CI 1.00─1.78). Increased number of discharge medications was significantly associated with 30-day (AOR 1.03; 95%CI 1.00─1.07) and 90-day (AOR 1.06; 95%CI 1.03─1.09) hospital readmissions. The use and number of PPOs (including vaccine omissions) were associated with reduced independence in instrumental activities of daily living scores at 90-days post geriatric rehabilitation discharge. Conclusion: The number of discharge medications, CNS/psychotropics and fall risk PIMs were significantly associated with readmission, and cardiovascular PPOs with mortality. Interventions are needed to improve appropriate prescribing in geriatric rehabilitation patients to prevent hospital readmission and mortality.
Pharmacometrics, the mathematical approaches to describe the transfer of drug through different biological compartments, are essential tools in clinical pharmacology research. The ethical necessity to study drugs accurately in the populations where they are to be used is increasingly recognized. To maximise the value of clinical data, study design and analysis must be appropriate. Historically, many datasets have been sent from African countries to better-resourced settings for analysis, but in recent years it has been demonstrated that capacity can be built and sustained within low and middle-income countries (LMIC)3. We report the establishment of the Uganda Chapter of Pharmacometrics Africa, to share learning with other countries seeking to build similar capabilities.
Novel Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist treatments have recently been developed in combination with hormonal add-back therapy, as an oral treatment option for women suffering from uterine fibroids. Registration trials assessing the GnRH antagonist combination preparations with relugolix, elagolix, and linzagolix have assessed treatment efficacy for fibroid related heavy menstrual blood loss in comparison to placebo. Marketing authorization has already been granted by several agencies including those in Europe, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Prior to marketing authorization, the European Medicines Agency recommends that Phase III registration trails should assess treatment efficacy in a representative study population, assess relevant outcomes with a comparison to gold-standard alternative treatment options and that long-term safety data will adequately be collected. In this review, we demonstrate limitations in the trial data generated to date, namely a lack of generalizability due to the restricted population studied, the absence of any comparison to alternative treatment methods, and findings limited to specific subgroups of patients because of the type of outcomes assessed. Symptoms related to uterine fibroids adversely affect many women’s quality of life and effective medical treatments are lacking. However, despite the urgent need for effective treatments, it is vitally important that novel drugs, like combination oral GnRH antagonists, undergo sufficiently rigorous evaluation of safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness in a representative population compared with alternative treatment methods before introduction into mainstream clinical practice.