Vitamin D insufficiency is closely related to various kinds of metabolic diseases. Acted as a marker of vitamin D status, 25-HydroxyvitaminD3 detection possesses important practical significance. In this study, highly sensitive fluorescent detection of 25-HydroxyvitaminD3 using truncated affinity-improved aptamers were developed, based on fluorescence intensity changes of PicoGreen (PG) generated upon binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) formed through hybridization of aptamer and corresponding complementary strand. Four truncated aptamers were obtained by intercepting the small hairpin loop as the functional domain and retaining double helix structural domains of different lengths that exist in the selected original 25-HydroxyvitaminD3 aptamer. Under the optimized PG concentration, we conducted comparison experiments for affinity and specificity of these four truncated aptamers. Among them, the shortest aptamer with only 21 bp, D3-4, was found to show the highest affinity and specificity to 25-HydroxyvitaminD3, with the limit of detection of 0.04μg/mL, which solved the problem that original long aptamer could not applied for this fluorescent detection of 25-HydroxyvitaminD3. The truncated 25-HydroxyvitaminD3-specific aptamer with highly enhanced affinity performs promising application in sensitive detection of 25-HydroxyvitaminD3.
Methods This prospective observational study included 44 patients who underwent isolated ASD closures in the department of cardiac surgery at the National Heart Foundation Hospital and Research Institute (NHFH & RI) from July 2014 to June 2016. After fulfilling the enrolment criteria, participants were divided into two groups.
Tissue engineering (TE) constitutes a multidisciplinary scientific discipline focused on the construction of artificial tissues to regenerate end-stage organs. The impact of TE has led to a clinical revolution since novel therapies are available to attend several conditions. In this sense, its onset has supposed the communication of innovative discoveries in the age of social and mass media. This study aims to evaluate the global online dimension of TE from 2012 to 2018 by using data from the Web of Science (WoS) and Altmetrics. We have analysed 23,719 documents through descriptive and statistical methodologies. First, the descriptive analysis showed the evolution of TE original articles in five online platforms (Twitter, Patents, Facebook, Mendeley readers and News) and compared the most relevant TE documents ranked by their traditional and alternative metrics of impact. Secondly, we carried out a correlation and factorial analysis and then constructed a linear regression model to define a mathematical equation for the prediction of future TE citations counts from Altmetric scores. The obtained results suggest a growing presence of TE in the online social web and the feasibility in the context of global science to anticipate TE traditional academic impact by using social media
After surgical removal of bone tumors, elimination of the remains of cancer cells along with tissue healing and functionality is a therapeutic goal. Regarding the destructive effect of chemo-/radiotherapy on healthy cells, the development of multimodal scaffolds with simultaneous anticancer and osteo-regenerative potency is of particular importance as regenerative medicine for bone tissue engineering. Our previous study demonstrated that hollow pollen grain (HPG) of Pistacia vera L. offers a unique bone-forming activity and encapsulating capacity that it can be considered as an excellent scaffolding building block in bottom-up bone engineering. In the present study, for the first time, the anticancer potential of Pistacia vera L. HPG was investigated in-vitro using human osteosarcoma cell line MG63. Optical imaging of the HPG-cell interface indicated large focal adhesion due to the HPG unique surface features such as functionality and ornamentation. MTT assay results showed an anti-proliferative effect of HPG on the MG63 cells. Moreover, from the gene expression and DAPI staining analyses, HPG of Pistacia vera L. was found to be an apoptosis-inducing building block against MG63 bone cancer cells. So therefore, such a multifunctional building block with the ability of discriminatory killing human osteosarcoma cell line is proposed to be used after surgery to not only hinder cancer recurrence after surgery but also to stimulate bone healing.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics for bacterial infections, which inactivates a broad spectrum of bacteria. However, it has some disadvantages including poor water solubility and easy aggregation of hydrophobic photosensitizers (PS), and poor tissue penetration and cytotoxicity when using UV as light source, leading to photodynamic therapy efficacy. Herein, we develop a novel water-soluble natural PS (sorbicillinoids) obtained by microbial fermentation using filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei). Sorbicillinoids could effectively generate singlet oxygen (1O2) under UV light irradiation, and ultimately display photoinactivation activity on Gram-positive bacteria, but not Gram-negative ones. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) treated with sorbicillinoids and UV light displayed high levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), notable DNA photocleavage, and compromised membrane permeability without overt cell membrane disruption. Moreover, the dark toxicity, phototoxicity or hemolysis activity of sorbicillinoids is negligible, showing its excellent biocompatibility.
Pressure ulcers are commonly associated with microbial infections on the wounds which need an effective wound dressing. However, the silver dressings have shown promising result but they have toxicity and argyria. Hence, this study aimed to develop and characterize chitosan-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanocomposite hydrogel loaded with phomopsidione as an antimicrobial dressing. The hydrogel being synthesized was analyzed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Drug release and mechanical properties were studied having confirmed the functional groups with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Finally, antimicrobial activities were evaluated against the clinical wound pathogens. The developed hydrogel was soft, flexible and elastic, having nanospheres of chitosan-PEG but no sign of aggregation under the electron microscopes. Releasing of phomopsidione from the nanocomposite hydrogel was slow and gradual following the first order of kinetic. On average, 34 μg/mL phomopsidione released per hour and 67.9% active ingredients delivered into the surrounding medium over the study period. Although, the bioactivity activity of the hydrogel was narrow-spectrum, it showed significant results against all Gram-negative bacteria and Candida utilis with 99.99% reduction of microbial growth. The findings reveal that the phomopsidione loaded hydrogel has a great promise to act as an antimicrobial dressing for chronic wounds.
Early detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant females starts by a request of the gynecologists, which is based on their knowledge and awareness of the guidelines on conducting these tests. This is an observational cross-sectional study that investigated the gynecologists’ knowledge, attitude and practice regarding HBV during pregnancy across Jordan. A random sample of 150 gynecologists were approached, from 3 major cities in Jordan, and asked to fill a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge, attitude and practice. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. One hundred and seven gynecologists have participated in the study. Most of the respondents were females, residents, and less than thirty years old. Although 97.2% of the practitioners agreed on the importance of the pregnant females on HBV, only 43% were aware of the obligatory protocol in Jordan regarding HBV screening, and only 55% would screen the pregnant females to HBV in-practice. Significant association was found between screening rates to HBV and both, level of specialty and experience of practitioners. Approximately 60% of practitioners were aware of HBV perinatal transmission risk. Only 19.6% always referred the infected pregnant females to other specialists regardless of the viral load. While 47.7% of practitioners agreed on recommending antiviral therapy for third trimester pregnant females, only 12.1% would always/often prescribe them. A noteworthy lack of Hepatitis B knowledge and screening practice among gynecologists in Jordan have been observed. A national program designed to increase the awareness of HBV testing in Jordan for both patients and gynecologists is called for.
Oxygen availability and overflow metabolism are often limiting factors in high cell-density cultures. In the present study, expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin in the chromosome of Escherichia coli was used as a strategy to improve plasmid DNA (pDNA) production in biphasic fed-batch cultures. During the fully aerobic batch phase, the strain expressing VHb accumulated 28 % less acetate and 19 % more pDNA than the non-expressing strain. The fed-batch phase was carried out with a change of regime from aerobic to microaerobic conditions. The pDNA yields from biomass increased consistently in the VHb-expressing strain during the whole culture, while decreased progressively for the non-expressing strain during microaerobic conditions. The ratio of positive/negative plasmid replication control molecules (RNAII/RNAI) were lower for the VHb-expressing than for the non-expressing strain. However, the final pDNA titer was ca. 74 % higher for the former. Flux balance analysis suggests that VHb presence increases the flux in anaplerotic pathways. The higher lactate production observed in VHb-expressing cells may be triggered by an increased demand of NAD+ in glycolysis under microaerobic conditions. These results are valuable for faster development of robust pDNA production processes.
In this theoretical study, we investigate the electronic potential energy curves, spectroscopic parameters, vibrational energy levels and transition dipole moments for the diatomic dications BeRb2+, BeCs2+ and SrRb2+. We consider an ab initio approach based on the use of non-empirical pseudopotentials and parameterized l dependent polarization potentials. Results show that 1-22Σ+ for BeRb2+, 1-52Σ+ for BeCs2+ and 1-32Σ+ for SrRb2+ are repulsive. While the 32Σ+ for BeRb2+, 42Σ+ for BeCs2+ and 42Σ+ for SrRb2+ are metastable states. These states can accommodate some vibrational energy levels. Interesting avoided crossings between some 2+ states are localized and examined. Until now no experimental and theoretical studies have been made for each system. Consequently, we discuss our results by comparing with some data of similar systems. Besides, the transition dipole moments of the ground state to a few excited states are computed and presented. The information associated with the electronic structures, spectroscopic parameters as well as the transition properties that provide in this paper is anticipated to serve as guidelines for further experimental and theoretical researches for each diatomic dication considered in this work.
Urea hydrolysis is widely used in agriculture, environment and other engineering fields, among which urease contained in beans can catalyze urea hydrolysis. The urea hydrolysis activity of legume plant leaching solution(LPLS) was investigated, including soybeans, black beans, mung beans, red beans as well as soybean hulls, soybean leaves, soybean stems and soybean pods. For the high urea hydrolysis activity and economic efficiency, soybean is most suitable for agricultural engineering and other fields than other beans and soybean-related parts extract. The urea hydrolysis activity increases with the concentration of LPLS, while decreases gradually with reaction time. When the heating temperature reaches 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65 ℃, the urea hydrolysis activity is steady and the enzyme activity is high. Enzyme activity decreases after 65 ° C (i.e.75, 90 ° C). Meanwhile, the soaking time of LPLS has a little effect on the urea hydrolysis activity compared with other factors. These results make a positive contribution to domestic production urease experimental basis.
Background Application of genetically modified non-pathogenic bacteria expressing specific anti-tumor proteins under certain conditions specific to tumors is an effective approach for selective targeting of tumors. We developed here, for the first time, a novel spatiotemporal cancer targeted therapy applying engineered E. coli bacteria with capability of expressing cardiac peptides under hypoxic conditions of tumor. Method E. coli BW25133 was transformed with construction of co-expressing cardiac hormones and GFP. Bacteria bearing constructs were then IV administered in mice bearing tumors and then tumor localization, as well as tumor proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis biomarkers (Ki-67, VEGFR, CD31and MMP9), changes in cytokine profile, suppression of tumor growth and survival were analyzed. Results IV Administered bacteria bearing constructs could specifically localize at tumor site and express cardiac peptides under hypoxic conditions. Administration of bacteria significantly enhanced survival rate, suppressed tumor progression and lowered expression levels of MMP-9, VEGFR2, CD31and Ki67 as potent markers for angiogenesis, tumor proliferation and metastasis. Furthermore, applied bacteria resulted in significant reduction in the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, GC-SF, IL-12 and TNF-α proinflammatory cytokines, whereas increasing IL-10, IL-17A and INF-γ cytokines. Conclusion Overall, administration of E. coli bearing cardiac hormone expression construct could effectively suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis while enhancing survival rate in mice model of breast cancer.
Aims: Drug-induced serum sickness-like reactions (SSLRs) are idiosyncratic drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions that occur in susceptible patients 1-3 weeks after exposure to the culprit drug. The pathophysiology of this type of reactions is not well understood and its diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of safe and reliable diagnostic tests for identifying the culprit drug. The lymphocyte toxicity assay (LTA) is an in vitro test used as a diagnostic and investigative tool for drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs). In this pilot study, we investigated the pathogenesis of SSLR using the LTA test to evaluate the potential role of reactive drug metabolites in the pathogenesis of SSLR. Methods: Nineteen patients (14 males and 5 females) were recruited to this study. Demographic data was collected form the patents and blood samples were withdrawn from all patients and from 19 healthy controls. The LTA test was performed on all subjects and data is expressed as percentage increase in cell death compared to control (vehicle without the drug). Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) concentration-related increase in cell death in cells isolated from patients as compared to cells from healthy controls when incubated with the drug in the presence of phenobarbitone-induced rat liver microsomes (MICs). Conclusion: This data suggests the initial bioactivation of the drug to a reactive metabolite followed by a toxic response is a key first step in -lactam antibiotic-induced SSLRs. Further research is needed to explore the implications of this data as to the pathogenesis of -lactam antibiotic induced SSLR.
Cotton is one of the most important raw materials for textile and clothing production. Compared with some synthetic polymer fibers, the main drawback of cotton fibers is its poor mechanical properties and its high flammability, and therefore it cannot be used for special textiles. Cotton fabrics treated with modern flame-retardant and reinforcement finishes often cannot meet rigid military specifications. polypyrrole-Magnesium oxide (ppy-MgO) and polypyrrole-Magnesium oxide-Carbon nanotube (ppy-MgO-CNT) composites were prepared with various weight ratios by in-situ chemical polymerization method. 1, 2, 3, 4-butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) was used as cross-linking agent in presence of sodium hypophosphite (SHP). The composite sol was coated on cotton fabric using pad-dry-cure technique. The coated cotton fabrics were characterized by SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV-DRS and FT-IR analysis and tested for flame retardant and UPF application. It was found that ppy-MgO-CNT composite was found to be efficient.
Pipecolic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, is a metabolite in lysine metabolism and a key chiral precursor in local anesthesia and macrolide antibiotics. To replace the environmentally unfriendly chemical production or preparation procedure of pipecolic acid, many biological synthetic routes have been studied for a long time. Among them, synthesis by lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD), encoded by pipA, has several advantages, including stability of enzyme activity and NAD+ self-regeneration. Thus, we selected this enzyme for pipecolic acid biosynthesis in a whole-cell bioconversion. To construct a robust pipecolic acid production system, we investigated important conditions including expression vector, strain, culture conditions, and other reaction parameters. The most important factors were introduction of multiple pipA genes into the whole-cell system and control of agitation. As a result, we produced 724 mM pipecolic acid (72.4% conversion), and the productivity was 0.78 g/L/h from 1 M L-lysine after 5 days. This is the highest production reported to date.
The atomic structure, spin states of the interface based on iron-porphyrin and armchair graphene nanoribbon (FeP/AGNR) and potential energy surface of FeP atop of AGNR migration is investigated via DFT theory. The multiplicity of Fe ion in iron porphyrin for all possible types of coordination is determined as a triplet. It is estimated that FeP would place atop AGNR at the position where two Fe-N bonds are located above the C-C bond, another two are located above C atoms. The barrier of migration of iron porphyrin complex atop of graphene armchair nanoribbon is found to be smaller the temperature factor, making the heterostructure to be in temperature equilibrium between different types of coordination of the iron porphyrin atop of graphene nanoribbon
Unique superhalogen properties of Pt(CN)n complexes (n = 1–6) containing cyanide (CN) pseudohalogen moieties bound with platinum (Pt) atom have been investigated under the quantum chemical formalism. The study involves theoretical calculations for both neutral and anionic forms of Pt(CN)n using density functional theory (DFT) with the hybrid functional B3LYP. In order to improve the accuracy of calculations, 6–311+G(d) basis set was implemented for CN moieties, whereas, SDD basis set supplemented with Stuttgart/Dresden relativistic effective core potential was used for Pt atom. HOMO–LUMO energy band gaps, vibrational frequencies and dissociation energies of Pt(CN)n complexes have been calculated to investigate their relative stability as well as reactivity. Additionally, superhalogen properties and salt forming capability of Pt(CN)n complexes have also been analyzed. Focus of analysis is on the delocalization of charges over attached CN ligands in successive members of the Pt(CN)n species. Reliable low–cost investigations on superacidity properties of associated protonated species have also been carried out keeping their industrial applications in mind.