Beetle hindwings have the unique advantages of lightweight and high strength, which play a key role in flight. In this study, the beetle hindwings were cut along the chordal direction, then the first groove microstructure of different vein cross sections was investigated using the 3D microscope system and LSCM. It was found that the position of the first groove relative to the entire chordal cross-section of the wing gradually moves backwards, which has an effect on the flying aerodynamic behaviors of the beetle. Next, three corrugated airfoils (CA models) learned from the microscopy imaging of ladybird beetle hindwing were designed. Then aerodynamic behaviors were calculated by ANSYS Fluent software, it was confirmed that the position of the first groove microstructure affects the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. For further study the influence of corrugated structural and motion parameters on the aerodynamic, 2D ‘simplified’ airfoil models with triangular corrugations (TWA models) were developed and studied.
The palynology and distribution of the trichomes, on the aerial parts and anatomy of Plectranthus scutellarioides from Udalguri district of Assam were studied in order to understand the significance of these features in systematics. The present work on Plectranthus scutellarioides thus provides an empirical basis for the identification of the species. Micromorphological features such as epidermal cell, stomata and trichomes were also studied under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The main types of trichomes - peltate, glandular and non-glandular were observed in leaves. Different features of pollen were observed and recorded. Photographs and Micrographs were also provided. All the observations were done under Light microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The research provides the first detailed descriptions of floral micromorphological and palynological characteristics for Plectranthus scutellarioides, contributing to the empirical identification of the species. The findings offer valuable insights into the structure, size, and shape of stomata, as well as trichome diversity and pollen characteristics
This paper is concerned with the stability analysis of the static output-feedback polynomial fuzzy-model-based (SOF PFMB) control systems through designing a novel membership grade integration (MGI) approach. The nonconvex problems of the SOF PFMB control systems are convexificated into the convex conditions by introducing block diagonal positive-definite Lyapunov matrix and nonsingular transformation matrix. We proposed a new approximated membership functions, i.e. Lagrange Membership Functions (LMFs) method, which can be introduced into the stabilization process to relieve the stability conservativeness results. The LMFs are general representations of piecewise-linear membership functions (PLMFs), which makes the number of stability conditions not limited by the number of sample points. In a fixed subdomain, arbitrary sample points can be employed by the LMFs method and achieve higher approximation capability by increasing more sample points, so that membership grades can be incorporated into the system analysis. Furthermore, a novel MGI approach including the information of premise variables and LMFs are proposed, which can make the stability conditions more relaxed. Finally, a simulation example is given to show the merits of the developed techniques.
Herbarium specimens are increasingly being used as sources of information to understand the ecology and evolution of plants and their associated microbes. Most studies have used specimens as a source of genetic material using culture independent approaches. We demonstrate that herbarium specimens can also be used to culture nodule-associated bacteria, opening the possibility of using specimens to understand plant-microbe interactions at new spatiotemporal scales. We used historic and contemporary nodules of a common legume, Medicago lupulina, to create a culture collection. We were able to recover historic bacteria in 15 genera from three specimens (collected in 1950, 2004, and 2015). This work is the first of its kind to isolate historic bacteria from herbarium specimens. Future work should include inoculating plants with historic strains to see if they produce nodules and if they affect plant phenotype and fitness. Although we were unable to recover any Ensifer, the main symbiont of Medicago lupulina, we recovered some other potential nodulating species, as well as many putative growth-promoting bacteria.
Data scarcity is a significant obstacle to both flood simulation and flood risk analysis. This study used an Integrated Flood Modeling System (IFMS) to setup a 1D-2D coupled hydrodynamic model in order to simulate the flood inundation process in the Anning River Basin (ARB) in Sichuan Province under design flood scenarios with various return periods (5-year, 10-year, 20-year, 50-year, 100-year). Owing to the lack of available long-term time series data, we used the design flood flow of a hydrological station, design standard of levee engineering, and historical flooding events in order to validate the model. Then, the comprehensive risk degree ( R-value) method was used to elucidate the flood risk levels. Finally, we drew a flood risk map of the ARB and analyzed its flood risk. The statistical analysis produced the following findings: About 147.5 km 2 of the total inundation areas in the ARB are inundated at an extremely high-risk level, and the inundation rate reached 75.18%. Among the key towns present, the percentage of extremely high-risk areas was greater than 80%. In terms of settlement flooding, the extremely high risk level had 184 inundation spots, which was much higher than the other risk categories. These results indicate that the risk of flooding in ARB is high. This study used hydrodynamic models with limited measured data in order to simulate flood inundation and assess the risk of riverine flooding. This study can serve as a reference for flood studies in similar rivers that lack measured hydrological data.
Objective: To investigate postnatal contraception use amongst physician women, who would be expected to be health-literate and therefore a possible “best case” scenario of postnatal contraception behaviours. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data Setting: United Kingdom Population or Sample: Registered physicians in the United Kingdom less than two years postpartum, aged 30-55 years old, who reported spontaneous conception. Methods: Secondary analysis of online, anonymous, survey data collected April - June 2021. Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare efficacy of postnatal contraception by socio-demographics and experience of contraception counselling. A Sankey plot presents timing of initiation and type of postnatal contraception used. Main Outcome Measures: Postnatal contraception use; time postpartum at which contraception initiated; contraception efficacy. Results: Among the 146 women who had had sex postpartum, only 11.6% used a very effective method (LARC/ sterilisation) as first contraception, and 16.4% had had sex without appropriate postnatal contraception. Postnatal contraception-efficacy was associated with timing of initiation (p<0.001); 92.3% of women initiating contraception up to 3 weeks postpartum used effective or very effective methods. Contraception counselling at the place of birth was associated with initiation of effective or very effective postnatal contraception (p=0.041). Conclusions: Uptake of effective or very effective postnatal contraception in the first 6 months postpartum was low, despite a highly health-literate population. However, the significantly high proportion of women choosing these options less than 3 weeks postpartum indicates their acceptability where services are available.
We conducted a feasibility study to evaluate micronutrients and body mass index. Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and trace elements copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and Z-scores were recorded. Side effects or specific adverse events were documented. No patients had a Z score for height, weight, or BMI of <2SD or >2SD. Ninety percent of patients had one or more micronutrient levels below normal. These results suggest that micro-nutrient abnormalities are common despite no obvious evidence of malnutrition. Side effects of chemotherapy may be exacerbated by micronutrient depletion.
Echolocating bats use and adapt ultrasound pulses that vary in several parameters, one of them being the pulse’s source level, which is a measure of the emitted sound amplitude. This is a vital ecological parameter as it directly impacts the maximum distance over which bats can perceive targets in their environment, most importantly their prey. Different habitats present different sensing challenges for echolocation systems, and the quality and content of information derived from echolocation pulses reflect these environmental challenges. As such, echolocation pulses within or between species may vary from one habitat to the next due to variable selection pressure, resulting in local adaptation. Habitat is, therefore, a key component in shaping the evolution of echolocation. The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH) proposes that acoustic properties of the environment influence sound propagation and therefore the evolution of echolocation pulses. Here, we tested the AAH using multiple microphone arrays to measure the source levels of echolocation pulses of 14 bat species in bat assemblages across sites in six biomes in South Africa. Contrary to the AAH, our results revealed that bats in the same assemblage used different echolocation pulse source levels, frequencies, and duration resulting in different detection distances, which differ among bat assemblages occupying different sites. Furthermore, detection distance was species-specific and remained similar within species between assemblages; suggesting that species is a better predictor of detection distances compared to habitat as indicated by Miniopterus natalensis across all seven sites. KEYWORDS: adaptation, bat assemblages, detection distances, microphone arrays, selection pressure, source levels
A key goal in ecology is to develop more effective ways to understand species’ distributions in order to facilitate both their study and conservation. Many species distribution modeling analyses have been performed to date, using either structured survey data or unstructured citizen science data; these two pools of data have tradeoffs in terms of data density, spatiotemporal coverage, and accuracy. Recent studies have shown that combining structured and unstructured survey data can greatly improve the accuracy of species distribution models for birds, but most of this work has focused on north temperate bird species and uses bird atlas data that is much more common in the temperate zone than elsewhere. We sought to adapt a data pooling approach from the literature on north temperate bird biology to create distribution models for a selection of secretive suboscine bird species that occur in a highly diverse region of the southwestern Amazon.
Defect engineering and metal decoration onto 2-D materials have gained major attention as a means of creating viable hydrogen storage materials. This Density Functional Theory (DFT) based study presents lithium decorated single vacancy (SV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defective silicene as a viable media for storing hydrogen via physisorption. Introducing defects increases the Li adatom’s binding energy from -2.36 eV in pristine silicene to -3.44 eV and -2.73 eV in SV and SW silicene, respectively, thus preventing Li adatom clustering. The presence of defects and Li adatom further aid hydrogen adsorption onto the substrates with binding energies present in the US-DOE set range of -0.2 to -0.7 eV/H 2 with the highest binding energy measured to be -0.389 eV/H 2. It was seen that both the Li-decorated defective systems were able to effectively store multiple H 2 molecules up to 28 H 2 with the highest gravimetric density being 5.97 wt %. The projected density of state plots indicates a combined overlap of the Li (p) and Li (s) orbitals with the H (s) orbital leading to enhanced H 2 binding energies. Molecular dynamic simulations conducted at 300 K confirm the stability of the Li adatom as well as the adsorbed H 2 molecules at room temperature, establishing the viability of these systems as effective, high gravimetric density, physisorption-based hydrogen storage media.
Objective: To better understand underlying factors of peripartum mortality we assessed variations in mortality by Robson 10-group classification. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Prospectively collected perinatal e-registry data from 16 hospitals in Benin, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. Population: All women aged 13-49 who gave birth to a live or stillborn baby >1000g between July 2021 and December 2022. Methods: We compared peripartum mortality risk by Robson group and calculated proportional contributions to mortality. We assessed interactions between mortality and Caesarean sections using multivariable logistic regression and post-estimations margins. Main Outcome Measures: Peripartum mortality, defined as intrapartum stillbirths and very early (≤24 hours after birth) neonatal deaths. Results: We included 80 663 babies born to 78 085 women, of which 1 706 were intrapartum stillbirths and 617 very early neonatal deaths. Peripartum mortality was 5.2% (Benin), 1.6% (Malawi), 1.1% (Tanzania), and 3.7% (Uganda). The largest contributor to intrapartum stillbirths (27.8%) and very early neonatal deaths (23.3%) was Robson group 3 (multipara with cephalic term singleton in spontaneous labour) followed by group 10 (preterm birth). Intrapartum stillbirth risk in breech presentation (groups 6 and 7) was 5.1% in nullipara and 11.1% in multipara. A Caesarean section halved the odds of peripartum mortality in breech presentation in primipara (0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.95). Conclusions: Our findings indicate a high share of peripartum mortality in lower obstetric risk groups and high mortality in breech deliveries and preterm births. This underscores the need to intensify actions to improve labour management.
Research groups use the single motion stimulus design of Dr. D.Tadin (Tadin, Lappin, Gilroy & Blake, 2003) that allows to putatively assess spatio-contrast excitatory and inhibitory effects from duration threshold data of motion perception. The present work presents the correct neurocomputational model for this experimental design and analyses issues related to data and model comparisons, among which: (1) once the full computational model that predicts the psychophysical results is properly defined, it is shown that two low-level models of how inhibition acts on neuronal activity, i.e. “divisive inhibition” and “subtractive inhibition”, predict exactly the same thresholds and cannot arguably be claimed that one is better than another one, (2) it is excitatory and inhibitory processes that are the mechanisms shaping threshold changes, i.e. perceptual “facilitation” and “suppression” in the behavioural domain, (3) that this experimental design allows a quantitative comparison and usage of such “contrast–size tuning” data, (4) that such studies must be carefully designed once the model is correctly understood and applied, because of the rather large parameter space (~10-12 variables) necessary to explain the behavioural measures even in such simple experiments.
Introduction:Edheim Chester Disease (ECD) is a rare disease of the non-Langerhans histiocytosis category involving organs such as the long bones, Central nervous system (CNS), skin, kidney, heart, arteries, and endocrinopathies.(1, 2) The disease is usually more common in the 50-60 years and men. Mutations that disrupt the cellular RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway play an essential role in the pathology of this disease.(3) Also, those diagnosed with the BRAF VR600E- mutation have more cardiac and CNS involvement.(4) Cardiac involvement in these patients can be seen as pseudo-tumor infiltrates of the right atrium (RA) in 36% of patients.(3)Diagnosis of the disease is based on histo-pathological, medical, and radiological findings, among which MRI is a key part of diagnosing the condition. (7, 8)In this clinical case, we present a challenging scenario involving a 42-year-old male patient who presented with shortness of breath and skeletal pain, in which a multi-disciplinary approach plan led to the diagnosis of ECD..
Melt electrowriting (MEW) is a solvent-free (i.e., no volatile chemicals), high-resolution 3D printing method that enables the fabrication of semi-flexible structures with rigid polymers. Despite its advantages, the MEW process is sensitive to changes in printing parameters (e.g., voltage, printing pressure, and temperature), which can cause fluid column breakage, jet lag, and/or fiber pulsing, ultimately deteriorating the resolution and printing quality. In spite of the commonly used error-and-trial method to determine the most suitable parameters, here, we present a machine learning (ML)-enabled image analysis-based method for determining the optimum MEW printing parameters through an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI). We trained 5 different ML algorithms using 168 MEW 3D print samples, among which the gaussian process regression ML model yielded 93% accuracy of the variability in the dependent variable, 0.12329 on root mean square error for the validation set and 0.015201 mean square error in predicting line thickness. Integration of ML with control feedback loop and MEW can reduce the error-and-trial steps prior to the 3D printing process, decreasing the printing time (i.e., increasing the overall throughput of MEW) and material waste (i.e., improving the cost-effectiveness of MEW). Moreover, embedding trained ML model with the feedback control system in a GUI facilitates a more straightforward use of ML-based optimization techniques in the industrial section (i.e., for users with no ML skills).
Satellite SAR provides ocean surface wind fields at 10 m above sea level. The objective is to investigate the capability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite StriX observations for mapping offshore wind farm wakes. The focus is on the conditions under which an apparent wind speed surplus is generated, measured in 48% of the 67 images available. The results compare well to Sentinel-1 observations, showing a 34% surplus rate during several years based on 1171 images. Three wind speed surplus cases have been studied in detail using the mesoscale Weather, Research, and Forecasting model (WRF) model with two wind farm parametrizations. The SAR-based observations and WRF model compare for most cases, though only when Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is included in the wind farm parametrization. The TKE mixes higher momentum downwards in a stable atmosphere, causing surface wind speed surplus near the surface.
Despite the considerable progress achieved in the field of cancer immunotherapy over the past few years, a large number of patients fail to benefit from these therapies due to insufficient alteration of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), which facilitates the evasion of anti-tumor immunotherapy. Metabolic reprogramming is emerging as an important hallmark of tumorigenesis and has a major effect on remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment and the response to cancer immunotherapy. However, only a limited number of studies have summarized the research trends and hotspots in metabolic reprogramming from the perspective of tumors and immune cells. Therefore, we aimed to comprehensively explore current research status and hot topics in TME-related metabolic reprogramming over a 20-year period using a bibliometric approach. Studies focusing on metabolic reprogramming and the TME were searched from the WOSCC database. Bibliometric and visual analyses of the included articles and reviews were performed using Bibliometrix (R-Tool in R-Studio), VOSviewer, and CiteSpace. A total of 4726 articles published between 2003 and 2022 were selected. The quantity of publications and citations exhibited an annual growth. Cooperation network analysis indicated that the United States holds the foremost position in the field of metabolic reprogramming and TME research, having the highest volume of publications and citations, thus exerting the greatest influence. Among the institutions, Fudan University displayed the highest level of productivity. Regarding publications in this field, Frontiers in Immunology emerged as the journal with the most extensive number of contributions. Ho Ping-Chih made the most article contributions; Pearce Edward J., was the most co-cited author. Four clusters were obtained after clustering analysis of the authors’ keywords with tumor microenvironment and immunotherapy, metabolic reprogramming and glycolysis, immunometabolism and gut microbiota, and immune and extracellular vesicles being the main topics. Immunometabolism, glycolysis, immune cells, and tumor-associated macrophages are relatively recent burst keywords that have attracted increasing attention.A comprehensive landscape of advancements in metabolic reprogramming and the TME was studied, which can provide crucial information for scholars to further advance this promising field. Further research should explore new topics related to immunometabolism in the TME using a transdisciplinary approach.