Summary. This is called the Abstract on the web submission site. The Summary should outline the purpose of the paper and the main results, conclusions and recommendations, using clear, factual, numbered statements. Authors should follow a formula in which point 1 sets the context and need for the work; point 2 indicates the approach and methods used; the next 2-3 points outline the main results; and the last point identifies the wider implications and relevance to management or policy. The final summary point is the most important of all in maximising the impact of the paper. It should synthesise the paper's key messages and should be generic, seminal and accessible to non-specialists, and must carry one of the following subheadings:
'Synthesis and applications' for articles that identify recommendations for management practices.
‘Policy implications’ for articles that are less directly tied to on-the-ground management and include discussion on conservation implications or links to policy.