PNAS Article Template

The Authorea Team

Please provide an abstract of no more than 250 words in a single paragraph. Abstracts should explain to the general reader the major contributions of the article. References in the abstract must be cited in full within the abstract itself and cited in the text.

Keyword1| Keyword2 | Keyword3 |

Author Affiliations

Include department, institution, and complete address, with the ZIP/postal code, for each author. Use lower case letters to match authors with institutions, as shown in the example. Authors with an ORCID ID may supply this information at submission.

Submitting Manuscripts

All authors must submit their articles at PNAScentral.


Many authors find it useful to organize their manuscripts with the following order of sections; Title, Author Affiliation, Keywords, Abstract, Significance Statement, Results, Discussion, Materials and methods, Acknowledgments, and References. Other orders and headings are permitted.

Manuscript Length

PNAS generally uses a two-column format averaging 67 characters, including spaces, per line. The maximum length of a Direct Submission research article is six pages and a PNAS PLUS research article is ten pages including all text, spaces, and the number of characters displaced by figures, tables, and equations. When submitting tables, figures, and/or equations in addition to text, keep the text for your manuscript under 39,000 characters (including spaces) for Direct Submissions and 72,000 characters (including spaces) for PNAS PLUS.


References should be cited in numerical order as they appear in text; this will be done automatically via bibtex, e.g. \cite{belkin2002using} and \cite{berard1994embedding,coifman2005geometric}. All references, including for the SI, should be included in the main manuscript file. References appearing in both sections should not be duplicated. SI references included in tables should be included with the main reference section.

Data Archival

PNAS must be able to archive the data essential to a published article. Where such archiving is not possible, deposition of data in public databases, such as GenBank, ArrayExpress, Protein Data Bank, Unidata, and others outlined in the Information for Authors, is acceptable.

Language-Editing Services

Prior to submission, authors who believe their manuscripts would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use a language-editing service (see list at PNAS does not take responsibility for or endorse these services, and their use has no bearing on acceptance of a manuscript for publication.