Hi everyone, happy to be here! Hyperhidrosis is a common condition, approx 3% of people deal with excessive sweating from their armpits, palms or soles of feet. It can be debilitating, the sweating is often heavy and uncontrollable, causing people to really struggle in social and work situations. The good news is that hyperhidrosis is highly treatable. At the Columbia Hyperhidrosis Center, our team of thoracic surgeons and dermatologists developed a multidisciplinary approach to the management of hyperhidrosis. While surgery is extremely effective at eliminating hyperhidrosis, there may be some unavoidable side effects, so we believe non-surgical options should be tried first. Here’s a little bit more about me and an interview about hyperhidrosis. Here’s my proof Edit: Thank you Reddit, I’ve enjoyed answering your questions. I’m signing off for now, and will try to check back in later today. Happy holidays!
Novel software development approaches are embracing abstraction and automation techniques. It is claimed that abstraction and automation techniques increase the productivity, improve the reusability and lower the complexity of the projects. In this study we address these new frontiers of software development by investigating on one novel proposal, namely the Ball. The Ball is an information ecosystem for authorised information containing web content, digital content as well as service development and integration. It is claimed to improve the reusability, productivity and security of software development while lowering the complexity. While improving the software developer's productivity it should produce smaller and more reasonable software systems, leading to a better reusability and a shorter learning phase for new developers. Up to now there exists no evidence to support these claims. In this study we analyse the Ball ecosystem from multiple perspectives. We compare it to related approaches in order to find its advantages and disadvantages. In order to provide empirical data we replicated a study where a mobile information system was developed using three different technologies. The results of this study show that the Ball ecosystem has the potential to improve the productivity of software development. However, it still needs further development and improvements before being competitive with traditional ways of developing software.
ACS AMA Hi Reddit! My name is Neelesh A. Patankar, and I am the Charles Deering McCormick Professor of Teaching Excellence and Associate Chair of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Northwestern University. Following my Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering at University of Pennsylvania, I was a post-doctoral associate with Prof. Daniel D. Joseph at the University of Minnesota until 2000. I then joined the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Northwestern University as an Assistant Professor in 2000, and have been a Professor since 2011. My research area is developing computational methods for immersed bodies in fluids and applying them to problems in biology (fish swimming, esophageal transport, rat whiskers) and engineering (vehicle aerodynamics). I have also been active in designing rough surfaces for non-wetting, super-wetting, anti-icing, and novel phase change properties. My group has published a series of papers on the thermodynamics of phase change on rough surfaces. Topics include keeping surfaces dry under water (see a short video here), restoring underwater superhydrophobicity, changing the boiling curve by extending or delaying the Leidenfrost regime, and the thermodynamics of sustaining vapor, “non-condensable” gases, and superheated liquids in roughness pores. I also recently acted as a scientific consultant for an ACS Reactions video on the Leidenfrost effect. The broader research vision is to engineer metasurfaces, that is surfaces that exhibit novel interfacial interactions during heterogeneous phase transition (e.g. condensation, boiling, freezing). Potential application areas include boiling and condensation heat transfer (e.g. in power plants), anti-icing, anti-fouling, and atmospheric water harvesting, among others. I will be answering your questions on the topics of rough surfaces for non-wetting, super-wetting, or novel phase change properties at 11am EDT (10am CDT, 8am PDT, 3pm UTC) -ACS edit text formatting 08:45 ET
Hi Reddit, my name is Chris Ruff [https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/profiles/results/directory/profile/0000031/christopher-ruff], and I’m an anatomist and biological anthropologist at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. During my 35 years of teaching anatomy, I’ve seen many changes in how we introduce students to this subject. Anatomy forms the foundation for much of medicine, but can be difficult to learn, so finding the best ways to communicate that information is important. Dissection of cadavers has always been a key part of anatomical training, because of the realism and experience with the actual body that it involves. However, increasingly we also use computer software to reinforce or review anatomical structures or concepts. Recently, we have developed a new product that makes learning muscles and bones fun and interactive. It’s designed for both medical professionals and anatomy neophytes. [https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/articles/anatomy-app-offers-interactive-learning-from-johns-hopkins-expert] I’ll be back at 1 pm ET today to answer your questions.
We regret to hear that Stephen Hawking died tonight at the age of 76 We are creating a megathread for discussion of this topic here. The typical /r/science comment rules will not apply and we will allow mature, open discussion. This post may be updated as we are able. A few relevant links: Stephen Hawking’s AMA on /r/science BBC’s Obituary for Stephen Hawking If you would like to make a donation in his memory, the Stephen Hawking Foundation has the Dignity Campaign to help buy adapted wheelchair equipment for people suffering from motor neuron diseases. You could also consider donating to the ALS Association to support research into finding a cure for ALS and to provide support to ALS patients.
As transportation emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have decreased due to stricter controls on air pollution, the relative importance of chemical products such as pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products has increased correspondingly. In a recent study we published in Science Magazine, we show that these volatile chemical products now contribute fully one half of emitted VOCs from petrochemical sources in Los Angeles. We hope these results will spur additional research and inform decisions about mitigating sources of ground-level ozone, fine particulate pollution, and air toxics. If you want to know more about how paints, pesticides, and perfumes contribute to pollution - ask us anything! Dr. Brian McDonald is an atmospheric scientist at the University of Colorado Boulder who works at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and whose expertise is on air quality models and emission inventories Dr. Chris Cappa is a professor at the University of California, Davis in the Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, whose work centers on the sources, fate and impacts of small particles in the atmosphere Dr. Jessica Gilman is a Research Chemist at NOAA and specializes in the measurement and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. Dr. Joost de Gouw is a senior research scientist at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder. His expertise is in the sources and transformations of organic compounds in the atmosphere.
Hi Reddit, I am Michaeleen Doucleff, a global health reporter for NPR, and I am joined by Rick Ostfeld and Felicia Keesing – disease ecologists from the Cary Institute in New York and Bard College, respectively, who have worked on Lyme disease for more than 20 years. In March, I reported a story for NPR on Lyme disease and tick-borne diseases in the U.S. The premise: Ostfeld and Keesing predict that 2017 will be a particularly bad year for Lyme. But they’re testing a way to stop it. Lyme is already on the upswing. From 2001 to 2015, cases in the U.S. have more than doubled, and they’ve spread around the Northeast and northern Midwest. Ask us anything. We’ll be here from 1PM to 3PM ET to answer your questions about how tick-borne diseases spread, why they’re spreading and what scientists are doing to stop it. Looking forward to hearing from you!
Hi Reddit, We are graduate students and postdocs in Professor Frances Arnold’s research group at Caltech. We use directed evolution, the algorithm for which Frances won the Nobel Prize last week, as a tool to engineer proteins. Directed evolution, like Darwinian evolution, is about “survival of the fittest” by selecting beneficial mutations that enhance a desired function. The key difference is that in directed evolution the person running the experiment chooses which mutations are beneficial – in other words, we choose the definition of “fittest” in “survival of the fittest.” Understanding how a protein’s sequence connects to its structure is challenging (relevant XKCD), and understanding how that structure confers function is another significant challenge. A strength of directed evolution is that one does not need to know a lot about the protein to use it; all one needs is the genetic information (the DNA that encodes the protein of interest) and a way of testing each variant for the function of interest. We don’t need to know exactly how or why the protein is able to catalyze a reaction or understand why a mutation enhances that activity. Proteins have been engineered using directed evolution for myriad uses, from higher stability for use in your laundry detergent to remove stains to producing blockbuster pharmaceutical compounds in place of less environmentally friendly syntheses. Unfortunately Frances is not able to join us for the discussion, but we are happy to answer any questions you have about directed evolution, proteins, Caltech, and beyond! Useful links on directed evolution: “What is directed evolution and why did it win the chemistry Nobel prize?” from Chemistry World C&EN Online explanation of directed evolution and phage display Frances discussing the Nobel Prize on NPR’s Science Friday TEDxUSC talk by Frances: “Sex, Evolution, and Innovation” Learn more about the Arnold Group: http://fhalab.caltech.edu/ Follow Dr. Arnold on Twitter: https://twitter.com/francesarnold Our discussion panel guests today are: Anders Knight ( /u/AndersKnight ): Anders is a fourth-year bioengineering graduate student in the Arnold lab. He works on engineering heme proteins to do carbene transfer reactions not found in nature. An open-access paper on these kinds of reactions is available here. Kari Hernandez ( /u/Kari_Hernandez ): Kari is in the 4th year of her Ph.D. and received her B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Arizona. Her work focuses on making useful molecules by evolving heme proteins to do non-natural reactions. Jennifer Kan ( /u/JennyKan ): Jenny is a postdoc in Frances Arnold’s lab at Caltech. Her favourite thing to do is to teach proteins to make cool bonds. Twitter: @sbjennykan Tina Boville ( /u/TinaBoville ): Tina is a postdoc in the Arnold lab evolving enzymes to make chemical building blocks called noncanonical amino acids. She is very interested in green chemistry and lab sustainability and is a fellow at the Resnick Institute. Patrick Almhjell ( /u/PatrickAlmhjell ): Patrick is a second-year graduate student in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics program at Caltech, working on the same project as /u/TinaBoville. Patrick loves chemistry but not the chemistry lab, so he appreciates being able to use enzymes in water instead. An open-access review on noncanonical amino acid synthesis is available here. Kevin Yang ( /u/KevinKYang ): Kevin is a 5th year PhD student in Frances Arnold’s lab. His research focuses on using machine learning to accelerate directed evolution. Read his open-access paper on using machine learning in protein engineering. Zach Wu ( /u/zvxywu ): Zach is a 4th year graduate student in Chemical Engineering. His research focuses on developing methods for engineering proteins efficiently and understanding the sequence function relationship. Our guests will begin answering questions starting at 1:00PM PST.
Edit: Thanks everyone for the questions so far! I’ll be taking a break, but I will periodically check back throughout the rest of the day and tomorrow as well if there are any more questions! This was fun, thank you! I am a postdoctoral fellow at the Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics. My research involves using large computer simulations to model the growth and evolution of galaxies and their supermassive black holes. My recent work, where we predict that massive galaxies like our own should host several “wandering” supermassive black holes, has recently been the subject of a press release. Given that this work has generated some interest on reddit, I thought this would be a great opportunity to answer questions about this paper, as well as supermassive black holes in general. Why do we care about supermassive black holes and how does this study help change how we understand them? I’ll be back at 1 pm ET to answer your questions, AMA!
Update: We’re all finished answering questions for the day. Thank you for all of the great questions and interest in our work! Thanks, The Dunn Lab. Microbes live everywhere, and are linked to everything we do. The Dunn lab aims to tell the stories of the small species – whether on our bodies, in our homes or our backyards – that humans interact with every day but tend to ignore. The ecology and evolution of these species has barely begun to be explored. We are tackling the unknown with the help of the public, through citizen science research. Here are some of our projects: The Sourdough Project: Humans have baked bread for over 10,000 years. All over the world, different cultures bake their own unique breads – and have for centuries. Yet we know almost nothing about the microbes that truly make a traditional sourdough bread. We have collected over 500 sourdough starters from 17 countries and are now engaging middle school students to grow and study their own starters, on a quest to understand the microbial zoos that transform flour and water into fluffy, nutritious, aromatic bread. The Crop Mutualist Project: Crop plants have many kinds of mutualists. Flies, bees, and wasps pollinate many crops and in many cases those relationships are specific. But others of the mutualists are smaller, they include the fungi and bacteria that aid plant roots in finding nutrients and also the fungi and bacteria that dwell in and on plant leaves and, in doing so, help to defend them against pathogens and, in some cases, against pests. It is these microscopic partners on which we will initially focus. The Great Pumpkin Project: We are documenting the insects and microbes that visit all cucurbit plants, including pumpkins (which are native to the Americas) and cucumbers (which are native to Asia). These plants are now grown and enjoyed throughout the world, yet we know very little about the microbes and insects that grow with them. The Wild Life of Our Homes: Human homes are often considered to be unique from the environments in which we evolved. Though we now spend most of our lives indoors, it has only been in recent years that we have started to fully explore the diversity of microbes which colonize and persist in these spaces. With the help of citizen scientists, our lab has studied the differences among interior surfaces within homes from North America (e.g., how microbial communities vary on pillows compared to toilet seats). We are now expanding this research to include differences in home design, as well as to consider how our species interactions may have changed throughout human history. We’re doing this AMA as part of the National Human Genome’s National DNA Day Reddit AMA series to celebrate how genomics is used in our everyday lives. Ask us anything about our work on microbial ecology in guts, crops, homes, sourdough, and other fermented foods! Your hosts today are: Dr. Rob Dunn, professor of applied ecology Dr. Erin McKenney, postdoctoral researcher studying microbial community dynamics and the relationship between taxonomy, function, and niche space in sourdough and guts. I’m interested in coupling research and education, and I am also a blacksmith. Dr. Anne A. Madden, postdoctoral researcher studying the bacteria and fungi of diverse environments (not limited to fermented foods and beverages, insects, and built environments) and developing human applications from these insights. Dr. Lori Shapiro, postdoctoral researcher studying how agricultural systems change selective pressures on plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. I use cucurbits as model systems to investigate how landscape scale changes associated with agriculture affect crop mutualists. Megan Thoemmes, doctoral candidate studying the interface between the human body and the indoor environment. I am interested in how our species interactions have changed over time, as our homes have become more permanent and further removed from the natural world. Lauren Nichols, research technician studying how species adapt to their environment and how this affects inter-species interactions and evolutionary diversification, particularly in the context of anthropogenic environmental changes. Learn more about the Dunn lab: http://robdunnlab.com/ Learn more about our citizen science projects: http://studentsdiscover.org/ Ongoing work in the Dunn lab considers the role of wasps and ants in traditional vineyards, the biology of pants, the potential value of microbes in camel crickets to industrial waste remediation, and the biology of foods such as sourdough bread. In general, Dr. Dunn uses insights from basic ecology and evolution to make new discoveries but also to achieve applied goals.
See the eLife flyer and this post for pictures! Daniel Himmelstein (@dhimmel on Reddit, Steem, and Twitter) – Hi Reddit! I’m a data scientist in Casey Greene’s lab at the University of Pennsylvania. Before this, I got my PhD in Biological & Medical Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco. One reason I took the job at Penn (watch me accept the job on YouTube) was because I wanted to continue advancing open science – the idea that science will progress most quickly if research is immediately open without barriers to reuse and collaboration. Sci-Hub is a website that brands itself as the first pirate website in the world to provide mass and public access to tens of millions of research papers. It is a controversial form of open science, because it infringes upon the copyright of publishers. However, it’s interesting because we think it will push scholarly publishing towards more open business models. Therefore, when Sci-Hub tweeted the list of every article in its database in March 2017, we began analyzing it openly on GitHub. Fast-forward almost a year and, after the publication of three preprint articles, we published our findings in the journal eLife with the title Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature. We also created a Stats Browser to help anyone explore the data. Casey Greene (@greenescientist on Reddit, Steem, and Twitter) – My research lab is in the Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics at the University of Pennsylvania. Our primary focus is on developing machine learning methods to better understand human health and disease. I also run the Childhood Cancer Data Lab for Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation, which is focused on integrating large-scale data to accelerate the pace of discovery. In addition to our research, I have an interest in the process of scientific communication, including our work studying Sci-Hub, our efforts to write a review paper entirely in the open via GitHub, and our biOverlay effort to launch an overlay for the life sciences. We’re here to answer questions about our eLife paper, or our work more broadly. We’ll start answering questions at 2pm EDT. AMA!
EDIT 4:35 pm ET: Thank you all for your excellent questions. It’s been a lot of fun sharing our science with you. We’re signing off now. We have just published a study detailing “Steve,” an aurora-related dancing purple light first spotted – and named! – by amateur photographers. This new information about Steve comes from analyzing satellite data, all-sky cameras and additional citizen-scientist photographs. Steve’s scientific name is now Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement (which can still be shortened to STEVE). STEVE appears as a faint purple ribbon of light in the sky and is often accompanied by a short-lived, green, picket fence structure. It looks much like an aurora but occurs at lower latitudes closer to the equator. After analyzing satellite data, we learned that STEVE is the visible side of something we were already familiar with: sub auroral ion drift (SAID), a fast moving stream of extremely hot particles. SAIDs appear in areas closer to the equator (like southern Canada) than where most auroras appear. Until now, we never knew SAIDs had a visual component! Studying STEVE can help us paint a better picture of how Earth’s magnetic fields function and interact with charged particles in space. You can help us learn more about STEVE by submitting your photographs and sightings of the phenomenon to a citizen science project called Aurorasaurus (online at aurorasaurus.org or on your device as iOS and Android apps). Check here for more details about how to spot STEVE. Answering your questions today are: Liz MacDonald, space scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and founder of Aurorasaurus Chris Ratzlaff, citizen scientist who first named Steve; runs the Alberta Aurora Chasers Facebook group Burcu Kosar, space scientist at NASA Goddard Matt Heavner, space scientist at the New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico Bea Gallardo-Lacourt, space physicist at the University of Calgary, Canada Bill Archer, space scientist at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Megan Gillies, space scientist at the University of Calgary, Canada We are now live. @NASASun on Twitter
Hello Reddit! We invited your burning questions about non-Newtonian fluids in Part 1 of our lab’s AMA series last year, promising to test the most interesting ideas with real experiments. The time has come for us to release our results to these popular questions! 1) Can oobleck (shear thickening fluid) be used for the best kind of speed bumps? (Credit: /u/slp50) ANSWER: Yes! Turns out /u/slp50 had the best idea all along. Experiment: We drove a remote controlled car over two different types of oobleck speed bumps at different speeds. The resultant video itself not the most interesting, but we analyzed the vertical acceleration of the car in slow-mo, and the analysis shows some really exciting results! When we compared our data with people driving their cars over all kinds of road speed bumps in 1973 (source: G. R. Watts, Transport and Road Research Lab Report, 1973), we find that non-Newtonian speed bumps are actually MORE COMFORTABLE AT LOW SPEEDS! And on the flip side, they are really uncomfortable if the car exceeds a certain critical speed! So, this idea is a winner. 2) What happens if you shoot ultra-strong sound waves into oobleck? (Credit: /u/ittimjones) ANSWER: The water inside the oobleck ends up quickly separates from the solid particles, and the entire non-Newtonian fluid expands. See our experimental video here. 3) What happens if you inject oobleck onto oobleck, or drop other non-Newtonian fluids onto themselves? (Credit: /u/bangbangIshotmyself) ANSWER: This one was really hard to do experimentally, so we changed it just a bit: we injected colored water into a normal liquid, a transparent gel that flows kind of like ketchup (yield stress fluid), and oobleck (shear thickening fluid). The gels lock the injected fluid in place, while oobleck “spits out”, or phase separates, the injected fluid. Check out our experiment here. 4) What if we drop a ball in these fluids? (Credit: /u/Croanius) ANSWER: We tried two types of non-Newtonian fluids: a liquid gel made of clay, and our cornstarch oobleck. Balls get stuck in the gel, and balls bounce on oobleck. Did you know that the army uses gels to test the effect of ballistics on humans, because no matter how much we work out, our bodies are basically jello? You can check out our results of dropping a ball into non-Newtonian fluids here. 5) Is full fat mozzarella cheese really necessary for the best kind of pizza (where the cheese is stretchy)? (Credit: /u/voilsb) ANSWER: For pizza connoiseurs: Yes, you must use full-fat mozzarella cheese if you want to reproduce that stretchy cheese phenomenon found in Pizza Hut commercials. We tested full-fat and skim-milk mozzarella, and the full-fat moz stretches extremely well above 80°C (175°F). See our experiment here. 6) Are cats non-Newtonian fluids? (Credit: Dr. Goulu) ANSWER: YES! But it depends on the situation and mood of the cat. Hear it from the IgNobel Physics prize winner! Tell us what you think about these experiments, non-Newtonian fluids, or just science life in general. Our lab members will be here to answer your questions all day.
Hi reddit, My name is Marc Hurlbert and I am the Chief Mission Officer of The Breast Cancer Research Foundation https://www.bcrf.org/, the nation’s highest rated breast cancer organization. I lead BCRF’s $59.5 million research portfolio which is distributed in grants to over 275 scientists this year alone. We fund the best and brightest researchers in the world. They come from all disciplines of science and are given the freedom to pursue their most creative ideas and promising research leads. A scientist myself, I am particularly interested in metastatic disease and disparities that exist among various ethnic groups in breast cancer care. I will be answering your questions at 1PM ET today – Ask Me Anything!
Thanks for the great questions, Reddit! We’re done answering for the day and are off to finish preparations for tomorrow’s Earth Gravity Assist maneuver. Tomorrow, NASA’s asteroid-hunting spacecraft, OSIRIS-REx, will fly by Earth and use the planet’s gravitational pull to slingshot itself onto a new trajectory. This maneuver, called an Earth Gravity Assist (EGA), will put the spacecraft on course to rendezvous with a primitive, near-Earth asteroid named Bennu. The spacecraft will reach Bennu next year, map the asteroid, and collect a sample of surface material (called regolith) that will be returned to Earth for study in 2023. This mission will bring the largest sample of space material to Earth since the Apollo missions’ lunar samples. We’re a group of scientists and engineers based at the University of Arizona—home to the mission’s Principal Investigator’s office and the Science Processing Operations Center—ready to answer your questions about OSIRIS-REx, EGA, and the mission to collect some of the oldest material in the solar system. We’ll be online from 1 to 3 pm PST (4 to 6 pm EST). Ask us anything! Proof: https://www.asteroidmission.org/reddit-ask-us-anything-earth-gravity-assist/ Dr. Dante Lauretta, OSIRIS-REx Principal Investigator Sara Knutson, OSIRIS-REx Science Operations Lead Engineer Dr. Ellen Howell, OSIRIS-REx Senior Research Scientist, Asteroid Spectroscopy Joshua Nelson, OSIRIS-REx Science Operations Engineer Anjani Polit, OSIRIS-REx Mission Implementation Systems Engineer Heather Enos, OSIRIS-REx Deputy Principal Investigator Dr. Lucy Lim, OSIRIS-REx Assistant Project Scientist