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Biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in perspective of early diagnosis and translation of neurotrophic therapies
  • Juho-Matti Renko,
  • Raimo Tuominen
Juho-Matti Renko
Helsingin yliopisto Laaketutkimusohjelma

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Raimo Tuominen
Helsingin yliopisto Laaketutkimusohjelma
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopamine neurons and aberrant deposits of alpha-synuclein (a-syn) in the brain. The symptomatic treatment is started after the onset of motor manifestations in a late stage of the disease. Preclinical studies show promising results of disease-modifying neuroprotective or even neurorestorative therapies with neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Three NTFs have entered phase I-II clinical trials with inconclusive outcomes. This is not surprising since the preclinical evidence is from acute early-stage disease models but the clinical trials included advanced PD patients. In order to conclude the value of NTF therapies, clinical studies should be performed in early-stage patients with prodromal symptoms, i.e. before motor manifestations. In this review, we summarize currently available diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers that could help identify at-risk patients benefiting from NTF therapies. Focus is on biochemical and imaging biomarkers, but also other modalities are discussed. Neuroimaging is the most important diagnostic tool today, but a-syn imaging is not yet viable. Modern techniques allow measuring various forms of a-syn in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, saliva and skin. Digital biomarkers and artificial intelligence offer new means for early diagnosis and longitudinal follow-up of degenerative brain diseases.
30 Oct 2023Submitted to Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
30 Oct 2023Assigned to Editor
30 Oct 2023Submission Checks Completed
30 Oct 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
02 Nov 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned