Sutaryo Sutaryo

and 15 more

Background: As in LMICs, the prognosis of childhood ALL in Indonesia was lower than in HICs. Indonesian-ALL2013 protocol resulted in more toxicities and abandonments than expected. Therefore, it was modified into a pilot ALL2016 protocol. Changes to the ALL2013 protocol: no anthracyclines in SR, dexamethasone replaced prednisone in reinduction for HR and some drugs were rescheduled. Procedure: We compare the outcome of ALL2013 and ALL2016. Results: A total of 383 children with ALL were diagnosed, 21 were excluded. ALL2013 included 174 patients (106 SR and 68 HR) and ALL2016 188 (91 SR and 97 HR). The outcome of the ALL2016 was better than the ALL2013 (pOS 67.0% vs 60.3%; p=0.087 and pEFS 50.0% vs 37.9%; p=0.012) even when the number of HR patients was significantly higher in ALL2016 (51.6% vs 39.1%). The ALL2016 showed an early advantage for SR patients (pEFS 56.7% vs 47.2%; p=0.114 and pOS 74.4% vs 69.8%; p=0.298) due to the decrease of toxic deaths (10.4% vs 5.5%; p=0.211) however the number of late relapses were still high (19.5% vs 13.2%; p=0.282). In the HR group, both pEFS and pOS were significantly better in ALL2016 (pEFS 43.3% vs 23.5%; p=0.010 and pOS 59.8% vs 45.6%; p=0.036) due to less relapses (14.4% vs 29.4%; p=0.019). Both SR and HR showed a smaller number of abandonments in ALL2016. Conclusions: After small changes in protocol, initial toxicity and abandonments were reduced and the pOS and pEFS were improved. However, relapses still need to be lessened in the next protocol.

Ibrahim El Salih

and 4 more

Background Paediatric oncology outreach programs have been effective development interventions to reduce inequalities in healthcare between high-income countries (HIC) versus low and middle-income countries (LMIC). But little is known about its sustainability during times of a pandemic. This study assesses the impact of COVID-19 government measures on a paediatric oncology outreach program between three large referral hospitals in the Netherlands, Indonesia and Kenya. Methods The head from each paediatric oncology outreach partner site was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire in June 2021. Results COVID-19 government measures impacted childhood cancer care at all three hospitals. However, disruptions in services are more prominent at partner sites in LMIC, increasing existing inequalities.The doctor from Dutch hospital, located in a HIC, reported only one disruption which is a decrease in surveillance evaluations for patients who completed cancer treatment. The doctors from Indonesian and Kenyan hospitals, located in LMIC, reported multiple disruptions. For example, reduced number of cancer diagnoses, delayed presentations, medical staff shortages, limited availability of chemotherapy and blood products, and delayed or modified treatment administration. Physical interaction between medical teams of all three participating institutions has slowed down. Hereby, adequate transfer of knowledge, skills and expertise have been adversely affected. Conclusion COVID-19 government measures have negatively impacted the intrinsic nature of the paediatric oncology outreach program. Disruptions in childhood cancer care services are more prominent at partner sites in LMIC. Government leaders and policy makers should take collateral damage of their policies and local settings into account to protect children with cancer