Background: We investigated the interaction between PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Dietary Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and Dietary Phytochemical Index (DPI) on Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 393 diabetic patients. PPAR-γ Pro12Ala was genotyped by PCR-RFLP method. Biochemical markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), pentraxin-3 (PTX3), isoprostaneF2α (PGF2α) were measured by standard protocol. FFQ was used for dietary indices (DQI, DPI, HEI) calculation. Results: There was no significant relationship between PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and CVD risk factors. The rs1801282-DQI interactions were significant on WC (P= 0.01). Thus, C-allele carriers in the higher tertile of DQI had higher WC compared to GG homozygous. Further, an interaction was observed between PPAR rs1801282 polymorphism and DQI on serum IL-18 level (P = 0.03). Besides, a significant rs1801282-DPI interaction was shown on HDL concentration (P Interaction= 0.04), G allele carriers who were in the highest tertile of DPI, had lower HDL. Moreover, there were significant rs1801282-HEI interactions on ghrelin (P= 0.04) in the crude model and serum leptin (P = 0.02) in the adjusted model. Individuals with (CC, CG) genotypes in the higher tertile of HEI, had lower leptin and ghrelin concentration. Conclusions: Higher dietary indices (DQI, DPI, HEI) may affect the relationship between PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism and waist circumference and ghrelin, leptin, HDL-c, IL-18 concentration in patients with T2DM. To date, studies on this polymorphism have been shown that this gene can interact with diabetes and different nutritional factors. For the first time, this study provides information on the interaction of dietary indices (DQI, DPI, HEI) and PPAR-γ gene which is functionally effective in nutrient metabolism.
Background: Caveolin is a cholesterol-dependent essential component located in caveolae. Several studies have been shown CAV-1 SNP related to cardio-metabolic parameters in animal models, however there is few studies in humans. Importantly, there is no study has investigated the interaction between CAV-1 rs3807992 gene and dietary pattern on CVDs risk factors in Iranian population. Methods: The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 overweight and obese females with mean age of 36 years. Dietary intake obtained from FFQ with 147 items. The CAV-1 genotype was measured by the PCR-RFLP method. The anthropometric measurements, serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers were measured. Results: There was a significant interaction between CAV-1 rs3807992 and healthy dietary pattern on HDL (P interaction=0.03), TC/HDL (P interaction=0.03) and hs-CRP (P interaction=0.04); in A-allele carriers, higher adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was related to higher level of HDL and lower TC/HDL and hs-CRP. As well as, the significant interactions were observed between CAV-1 rs3807992 and unhealthy dietary pattern in relation to TG (P interaction = 0.001), AST (P interaction = 0.01) and MCP-1(P interaction = 0.01); A-allele carriers were more adherence to the unhealthy dietary pattern to lower levels of TG, AST and MCP-1. Conclusions: Our study showed that CAV-1 rs3807992 SNP interacts with adherence to unhealthy or healthy dietary patterns to influence several cardio-metabolic risk factors in obese and overweight females. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings