Ursolic acid (UA) is a ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, naturally produced in plants via specialized metabolism and exhibits vast range of remarkable physiological activities and pharmacological manifestations. Owing to significant safety and efficacy in different medical conditions, UA may serve as a backbone to produce its derivatives with novel therapeutic functions. This review systematically provides an overview of the pharmacological activities, acquisition methods and structural modification methods of UA. In addition, we focused on the synthetic modifications of UA to yield its valuable derivatives with enhanced therapeutic potential. Furthermore, harnessing the essential advances for green synthesis of UA and its derivatives by advent of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are highlighted. In combination with the advantages of UA biosynthesis and transformation strategy, large-scale production and applications of UA is a promising platform for further exploration.
Yeast has been well-used as a typical microbial platform to make fermented fine chemicals. However, various stress conditions severely restrict the production costs and benefits. One effective way to resolve such bottlenecks is to engineer transcription factors (TFs) to enhance strain tolerance and production efficiency through remodeling the transcript levels of different stress resistant genes. Here, we focus on the recent advances in the mechanisms of yeast adaptive responses upon stresses of heat, acetic acid and oxidants and classify them into different modules within yeast cells. In particular, novel strategies for the enhancement of both tolerance and yield by TFs engineering are examined. In addition, the applications of artificial transcription factor (ATFs)-based fabricating in metabolic fluxes optimization and quantitative evaluation are discussed. Lastly, we discuss challenges and potential solutions in exploiting TFs engineering and for A bio-based economy products.