Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) consists of left internal thoracic artery (LITA) graft to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and transcatheter revascularization of the non-LAD stenosis in specific settings to achieve complete coronary revascularization. Technique to perform the LITA to LAD graft has ranged from median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass to robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary bypass surgery using beating heart revascularization.
Robotic totally endoscopic techniques to perform the LITA to LAD graft, coupled with PCI, provides the least invasive option to achieve hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR). Shorter hospital stay and reduced need for blood transfusions have been consistently being reported by several studies along with similar long-term outcomes. Considerable variations exist in the definition of HCR which can be single or two-staged with surgical revascularization being carried out after PCI or vice versa. Variations also exist with respect to usage of cardiopulmonary bypass, surgical incisions, and use of minimally invasive robotic techniques. The different strategies of HCR do not lead to similar outcomes and the findings of one strategy cannot be extrapolated to the entire group. Studies reporting different strategies of HCR, should ideally provide more granular data when reporting outcomes.
It has been long believed that ischemic mitral regurgitation is secondary to left ventricular remodelling and the mitral per se remains unaffected. This proviso has recently been challenged and the mitral valve has been described as a structure that responds and adapts to challenges and attempts to correct the mitral regurgitation. The response of mitral valves in this setting can be incomplete or can even be mal-adapted. The ability of the mitral valve to respond in this manner has been described as “mitral plasticity”. Endothelial to Mesenchymal transition and Valvular Interstitial Cells are key to this mitral plasticity and function through a complex array of signalling pathways. Identification and manipulation of these pathways may provide a possibility to correct the incomplete or mal-adapted mitral valve responses. Surgical treatment can also be tailored based on whether the valve has maladapted or has undergone incomplete adaptation.
The authors in this manuscript have reported an increase in the number of vascular emergencies seen during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Lombardy region of Italy. A significant increase in the number of acute limb ischaemia was seen during this phase along with other vascular emergencies. In this review, we have tried to examine this association between increase in vascular emergencies and COVID-19 infection. We have also described the differences in presentations, prognosis and procedural outcomes following operative interventions in these patients compared to the non-COVID patients. An attempt has been made to assess the role of adjunctive measures like intravenous heparin to improve outcomes.
While there is significant awareness regarding droplet and contact transmission, aerosols are generally underestimated as a potential mode of transmission of SARS-Cov-2 infection. With the gradual resumption of cardiac surgical activities, the cardiac surgical operating room will become an important potential source of infection to the cardiac surgeon and other healthcare workers participating in the operation. There is also diminished awareness about the different aerosol generating procedures (AGP) in the cardiac surgical operating room. In this mini-review we intend to highlight the various aerosol generating procedures that are common in cardiac surgery. This will help increase the awareness among surgeons to AGP. A practical approach to taking preventive measures have also been discussed.