Reanalyzing Head et al. (2015): No widespread p-hacking after all?
Statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking) is a serious problem for the validity of research, especially if it occurs frequently. Head et al. provided evidence for widespread p-hacking throughout the sciences, which would indicate that the validity of science is in doubt. Previous substantive concerns about their selection of p-values indicated they were too liberal in selecting all reported p-values, which would result in including results that would not be interesting to have been p-hacked. Despite this liberal selection of p-values Head et al. found evidence for p-hacking, which raises the question why p-hacking was detected despite it being unlikely a priori. In this paper I reanalyze the original data and indicate Head et al. their results are an artefact of rounding in the reporting of p-values.
Megan Head and colleagues (Head 2015) provide a large collection of p-values that, from their perspective, indicates widespread statistical significance seeking (i.e., p-hacking) throughout the sciences. Concerns have been raised about their selection of p-values, which was deemed too liberal and unlikely to find p-hacking to begin with (Simonsohn 2015), which raises the question why evidence for p-hacking was found by Head et al. nonetheless. The analyses that form the basis of their conclusions operate on the tenet that p-hacked papers show