Historic buildings in cairo city

Ehsan Raslan

and 2 more

ABSTRACTThe increasing  of energy demands has affected the historic architectural heritage in different climate zones. Unprecedented heat waves have increased climate temperature, in particular, in hot climate zones such as Egypt. In Egypt, Only the residential sector consumes 43.4% of total electricity consumption. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning) systems are used to reach acceptable thermal comfort levels in the residential & public buildings, in the new buildings as well as in the existing ones. In case of the historical buildings in Egypt law regulations \cite{URL_IDc}, there are no limits or discussion about the use of HVAC systems to achieve the required thermal comfort level.Thus, to  reach an acceptable thermal comfort level, the historical buildings in Cairo  which already contain natural ventilation system, were transformed by users to  adapt the modern thermal comfort requirements and thermal comfort strategies and technologies. Despite many transformations  were done, not only those historic buildings were negatively transformed, but  also the users couldn’t achieve the requested thermal comfort levels. These informal transformations affected the conservation of the architectural heritage.This  positioning paper tackles with the concept and importance of the control and  adjustment of the comfort levels in the historical buildings. The positioning  paper provides an indication about the state of art in the contemporary peer  academic researches which is essential to realise the research gaps in this  field. Moreover, it suggests methodology to be applied in case of measuring the  thermal comfort in the historical houses in Cairo.The positioning  paper is part of the PhD research that aims at discussing how to achieve balance  between thermal comfort and conservation requirements in the historic houses in hot arid zones. Especially historical houses from 17th till 19th centuries in Cairo  (Ottoman period) are discussed as examples. Taking into consideration that the original natural  ventilation system should be achieved as a part of the original architectural  concept of these houses in Cairo.The result is  expected to be achieved through a systematic control of the thermal  comfort level in the historical Ottoman houses in Cairo, in order to create  guidelines to restore other Ottoman historical houses in Cairo or in other hot  arid zones. In other words, PhD itself will act as an accurate method to control the thermal comfort level in the historical houses in hot arid zones without damaging the cultural heritage values. This concept is discussed and applied in the historical buildings in cold climate zones but not in hot climate zones. Furthermore, this concept should be spread in other climate zones to maintain the cultural heritage properties.Quantitative methodology approach is used in order to evaluate the natural  ventilation systems, clarify the thermal comfort level and to verify the  necessity of additional system in these historical houses to fulfil the recent  thermal comfort requirements. KeywordsThermal comfort; Building Performance; Natural  ventilation system; Climate conditions; Hot Arid Zone; Conservation practices; Architectural  heritage; Historical buildings; Ottoman houses; Cairene housesContents   IntroductionResearch questionConceptual Framework        3.1. Conservation issues        3.2. Building energy performance issues & thermal comfort requirements        3.3. Discussion about the relationship between the conservation and thermal  comfort issues in historic buildings4. Research Problems of the PhD topic5. State of art        5.1. Thermal comfort and historic buildings in different climate zones        5.2. The Ottoman houses (heritage and Society)        5.3. Discussion about the recent  researches about the used methodologies of measuring the thermal comfort in  historic houses        5.4. Conclusions: the knowledge gap6. Research methodology of the PhD (General and Detailed)        6.1. General methodology for the PhD topic        6.2. Detailed methodology for the case studies7. Expected results8. Research importance9. Research progress and current stateReferencesINTRODUCTIONCultural heritage deals with senses, memories, and physical values. It includes movable and immovable things that represent significant value for a society\cite{URL_IDa}. So, it is an important source of information about the  past. Historic buildings are part of tangible cultural heritage and they, particularly, give us insight about the way of an ancient society thinking. These buildings were designed to involve community beliefs, climate conditions requirements, and economic aspects.Nowadays, the historical buildings constitute a large portion of the built environment in different countries. First example in Egypt, historical buildings include monuments and buildings with peculiar architectural, historic, or urban value.- The monuments are registered according to law no. 117 of 1983 by the Ministry of Antiquities in Egypt (SCA) and they were built before 100 years \cite{URL_IDc}.- Meanwhile, buildings with peculiar architectural, historic, or urban value are registered according to law 144 of 2006 by Ministry of Culture (MoC) with National Organization for Urban Harmony (NOUH). The law no. 144/2006 does not mention to the age of these buildings. However, the registered buildings according to that law were built till before 1930 \cite{URL_ID}.In Cairo, the historical buildings in Historic Cairo area constitute around 16.50 %  of the built environment of Cairo city\cite{URL_IDd}, Ref. to figure no. (1) & (2).