Evolutionary artificial life systems have demonstrated many exciting behaviors. However, there is a general consensus that these systems are missing some element of the consistent evolutionary innovation that we see in nature. Many have sought to create more “open-ended” evolutionary systems in which no stagnation occurs, but have been stymied by the difficulty of quantifying progress towards such a nebulous concept. Here, we propose an alternate framework for thinking about these problems. By measuring obstacles to continued innovation, we can move towards a mechanistic understanding of what drives various evolutionary dynamics. We propose that this framework will allow for more rigorous hypothesis testing and clearer applications of these concepts to evolutionary computation.
Abstract This paper reviews the problems associated with marijuana abuse and marijuana dependency among college students (Ratini, 2014). It also explores their progressive use of marijuana, causing addiction, and then turning them towards rigorous self-healing through treatment as a personal commitment, and a positive approach towards successful recovery. This paper gathers information on marijuana abuse, leading to addiction and the recovery of a college student. Marijuana Anonymous (MA) organization focuses on the Twelve-step program of recovery that incorporates a belief in a Higher Power as essential for recovery (Marijuana Anonymous, 2016). The National Institute of Drug Abuse explains marijuana and its usage as an illicit drug (“Drugfacts:marijuana,” 2016). According to an article on “Marijuana Use and its Effects,” there are serious psychological, physical, and social effects of marijuana on an individual (Ratini, 2014). Research also indicates a link between childhood trauma and marijuana abuse (Khoury, Tang, Bradley, Cubells, & Ressler, 2010, pp. 1077-1086). The individual experiences of Mike H. are addressed in each section to address the elements of addiction, intervention, and successful recovery. Keywords: marijuana, marijuana abuse, effects of marijuana, Marijuana Anonymous, marijuana dependency, substance abuse and college students
Medical students and residents often seek advice on a variety of topics from more senior physicians. Herein, I share the collected wisdom of 40 practicing physicians on topics of general interest to undergraduate and graduate medical trainees. Much of this advice is applicable to physicians already in practice.
I examined the gender balance of speakers at annual meetings of the Society for the Neurobiology of Language from 2009–2015, and in authors in the journal Brain and Language from the beginning of 2015. Of the conference speakers, 30% (14/47) were women, with no year having more than 38% speakers who were women. In contrast, approximately half of the authors (82/159) published in Brain and Language were women. These findings suggest intentional strategies are needed to achieve conference speaker gender balance.
The Journal of Open Research Software (JORS) is an open access journal, which publishes peer reviewed software papers. Software papers describe open source software for research with high reuse potential. The authors publishing in the journal are awarded for opening up software with a peer reviewed journal article. This article is an author-based review of JORS and an experience report of the submission process of one now published paper there.
Preprints have become a popular topic of conversation among publishers, researchers, funders, librarians, technology builders, and service providers. Their attention is spurring explorations into building technology that will accommodate the uptake of preprints by the researcher community. I propose that the attention that preprints are currently receiving provides us with a rare opportunity to build technology that will facilitate a new era of research communication.
We argue that a theory of the evolution of Empathizing (E) and Systemizing (S) needs first to clarify that these are personality traits, as distinct from cognitive abilities. The theory should explain both the observed reciprocity of, and the sexual difference between, E and S in a context of the historical emergence of these traits and their balance in relation to local selection pressures. We suggest that the baseline state is that (since humans are social animals) ancestral human hunter gatherers are assumed to be relatively High Empathizers, lower in Systemizing: thus more interested in people than in things. Changes related to the development of agriculture and technology meant that it became economically useful for some men to become more interested in ‘things’ than in people, as a motivation for them to learn and practice skills that were vital to personal and (secondarily) social survival, reproduction and expansion. This selection pressure applied most strongly to men since in the sexual division of labour it was typically men’s role to perform such tasks. We further hypothesize that High Systemizing men were rewarded for their socially vital work by increased resources and high status. Because marriages were arranged in traditional societies mainly by parental choice (and the role of parental choice was probably increased by agriculture), it is presumed that the most valued women, that is young and healthy women thereby having high reproductive potential, were differentially allocated to be wives of economically successful High Systemizers. Such unions of economically successful High Systemizing men with the most reproductively valuable women would be expected to lead to greater-than-average reproductive success, thereby amplifying the population representation of genes that cause high systematizing in the population. This hypothesis makes several testable predictions.
This report summarizes the presentations and discussions on the research activities presented at XP 2014, the 15th International Conference on Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming, which was held May 26-30, 2014 in Rome, Italy. XP conferences are major supporters of the agile vision of software developers, the related multidisciplinary research, and bridging industrial practitioners with academia. XP 2014 continued this trend, hosting research papers divided in the topics of agile development, agile challenges and contracting, lessons learned and agile maturity, how to evolve software engineering teaching, methods and metrics, testing and beyond, and lean development.
Scientists, institutions and journals have been increasingly evaluated statistically, by metrics that focus on the number of published reports rather than on their content, raising a concern that this approach interferes with the progress of biomedical research. To offset this effect, we propose to use the R-factor, a metric that indicates whether a report or its conclusions have been verified.
I present a checklist of acquisition parameters for inclusion in the methods section of an fMRI paper. The current list expands and updates the list that was given in the 2008 paper from Poldrack et al. (I have reproduced below the section on acquisition that appeared in that 2008 paper.) The emphasis is on fMRI experiments that use 1.5 to 3 T scanners with standard hardware available today, but the list should work reasonably well for 7 T experiments as well. I further assume that fMRI is performed with 2D multi-slice EPI or spiral scanning and uses BOLD contrast, but parameter reporting for 3D sequences and other k-space trajectories as well as non-BOLD contrast should be feasible. The first full version of the checklist, version 1.1, was presented in January, 2013. Version 1.2 was released in December, 2014. This version is denoted 1.3 and will be the final series 1.x release. Release notes for this version appear below. The checklist was initially developed based on my experience with Siemens scanners but I have attempted to use generic descriptions as far as possible. Version 2.0 is planned for the end of 2015 and will include vendor-specific nomenclature under each parameter.
Hello Reddit, I’m Michael S. Okun. I received my M.D. from the University of Florida and was also trained at Emory University, one of the world’s leading centers for movement disorders research. I am currently chairman of neurology, professor and co-director of the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida College of Medicine. The center, which is part of the Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases and the McKnight Brain Institute, is unique in that it is comprised of 40+ interdisciplinary faculty members from diverse areas of campus, all of whom are dedicated to care, outreach, education and research. I helped construct a one-stop, patient-centered clinical-research experience for national and international patients seen at the University of Florida. In 2015, I was recognized at the White House for being a Champion of Change for Parkinson’s Disease. I serve as national medical director for the Parkinson’s Foundation and have been supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Smallwood Foundation, the Tourette Syndrome Association, the Parkinson Alliance, the Bachmann-Strauss Foundation, the Parkinson’s Foundation and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. During my research career, I have explored non-motor basal ganglia brain features and I currently hold two NIH R01 grants on deep brain stimulation. I’ve been an integral part of pioneering studies exploring the cognitive, behavioral and mood effects of brain stimulation. I hold the Adelaide Lackner Professorship in Neurology and have published over 350 peer-reviewed articles. I’m a poet (“Lessons From the Bedside,” 1995) and my book “Parkinson’s Treatment: 10 Secrets to a Happier Life” was translated into over 20 languages. My latest book, “Tourette Syndrome: 10 Secrets to a Happier Life” was recently published. I’ll be answering your questions about Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders at 1 p.m. EST. Ask me anything! Thank you for spending an hour with me. It was a lot of fun and your questions were great. Here are some recent articles that you may be interested in reading: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2650798 https://theconversation.com/parkinsons-disease-new-drugs-and-treatments-but-where-are-the-doctors-83334 Michael S. Okun, M.D.