Hi reddit! We’re a group of scientists and advocates who believe that the traditional genetics research model is outdated. We think that people who participate in genetic studies should be involved in decision-making, that research projects should collaborate, that samples should be diverse, and that studies should use real world data. We need these changes to improve our ability to discover treatments and cures for diseases. But at the same time, researchers also need to ensure participant privacy, data security, and give participants the chance to weigh in on and directly benefit from research- medically, informationally, and financially. Let’s discuss! With us today are an array of researchers and leaders from a variety of genetics backgrounds working with a company, LunaPBC, on these questions. Dawn Barry (u/Dawn_Barry): I’m the President and Co-founder at LunaPBC, Board Chair at Alzheimer’s Association San Diego/Imperial Chapter, and former VP Applied Genomics at Illumina. The twelve years I spent at Illumina, Inc., I led pioneering teams in preemptive health screening, nutrition security, and transplant diagnostics. I was also the co-founder of the Illumina Understand Your Genome symposium, which is now owned by Genome Medical. Bob Kain (u/Bob_Kain): I’m the Chief Executive Officer and Co-founder at LunaPBC, 2019 World Economic Forum’s Tech Pioneer, and former Chief Engineering Officer at Illumina. During my 15-year tenure, Illumina grew from a research start up of 30 employees to a global genomics leader of 3,000 employees with $1.5 billion in revenue. My team helped reduce the cost of genome sequencing from a million dollars in 2006 to $1,000 in 2015. The products developed enabled new applications for DNA sequencing in agriculture, pathogen identification and precision medicine. Today, I’m building a talented, ethical team with unifying visions to create a world-changing solution and improve the quality of life for all at LunaPBC. Scott Kahn, Ph.D (u/Scott_Kahn): I’m the Chief Information Officer at LunaPBC, Board of Directors at Rady Children’s Institute for Genomic Medicine, and former Chief Information Officer and Vice President Commercial, Enterprise Informatics at Illumina. I’m integrating data privacy and security provisions that comply with GDPR and HIPAA at the world’s first community-owned health database that offer shares of ownership to health data contributors. Kirby Bloom (u/Kirby_Bloom): I’m the Chief Architect at LunaPBC, former Head of Software for Applied Genomics at Illumina, and MIDS candidate at the University of California, Berkeley. I’m helping bridge the gap between research scientists and large scale data analytics by building the tools needed to produce better insights for health discovery. Sharon Terry (u/Sharon-Terry): I’m the President and CEO of the Genetic Alliance, a network transforming health by promoting openness and is founding CEO of PXE International, a research advocacy organization for the genetic condition pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). My memberships and advisories include the International Rare Disease Research Consortium and the Institute of Medicine Science and Policy Board. I was instrumental in the passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. Among other awards I received was the Clinical Research Forum, Foundation’s Annual Award for Leadership in Public Advocacy in 2011, and PMWC 2019 Luminary Award Recipient. Yaniv Erlich, Ph.D (u/Yaniv-Erlich): I’m the creator of DNA.Land, Chief Science Officer of MyHeritage.com, and until recently, an Associate Professor of Computer Science and Computational Biology at Columbia University. I’m a TEDMED speaker (2018), the recipient of DARPA’s Young Faculty Award (2017), the Burroughs Wellcome Career Award (2013) and the Harold M. Weintraub award (2010). Aristides Patrinos, Ph.D (u/Aristides_Patrinos): I am the Chief Scientist and Director for Research of the NOVIM Group, Former Lead at the Human Genome Project, LunaDNA Advisor, and leading authority on structural biology, genomics, global environmental change, and nuclear medicine. I’m dedicated to the development of synthetic biology and in the development of clean and renewable fuels and chemicals, sustainable food products, and novel medical applications. EDIT: Thank you to everyone who participated in this important discussion about the future of health discovery. We believe the fastest, most impactful change can only happen at the level of community. Your voice matters. Please feel free to continue the conversation at lunadna.com and @LunaDNA_ on Twitter. Until then, it was our pleasure chatting with you!
Hi reddit! This month the UN is holding its Climate Action Summit, it is New York City’s Climate Week next week, today is the Global Climate Strike, earlier this month was the Asia Pacific Climate Week, and there are many more local events happening. Since climate change is in the news a lot let’s talk about it! We’re a panel of experts who study and communicate about climate change’s causes, impacts, and solutions, and we’re here to answer your questions about it! Is there something about the science of climate change you never felt you fully understood? Questions about a claim you saw online or on the news? Want to better understand why you should care and how it will impact you? Or do you just need tips for talking to your family about climate change at Thanksgiving this year? We can help! Here are some general resources for you to explore and learn about the climate: AAAS just released a report with case studies and videos of how communities and companies (and individuals) in the US are working with scientists to respond to climate change called “How We Respond.” NASA: Vital Signs of the Planet National Academies of Sciences: Climate Change Evidence and Causes National Geographic: Seven things to know about Climate Change Today’s guests are: Emily Cloyd (u/BotanyAndDragons): I’m the director for the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Public Engagement with Science and Technology, where I oversee programs including How We Respond: Community Responses to Climate Change (just released!), the Leshner Leadership Institute, and the AAAS IF/THEN Ambassadors, and study best practices for science communication and policy engagement. Prior to joining AAAS, I led engagement and outreach for the Third National Climate Assessment, served as a Knauss Marine Policy Fellow at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and studied the use of ecological models in Great Lakes management. I hold a Master’s in Conservation Biology (SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry) and a Bachelor’s in Plant Biology (University of Michigan), am always up for a paddle (especially if it is in a dragon boat), and last year hiked the Tour du Mont Blanc. Jeff Dukes (u/Jeff_Dukes): My research generally examines how plants and ecosystems respond to a changing environment, focusing on topics from invasive species to climate change. Much of my experimental work seeks to inform and improve climate models. The center I direct has been leading the Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment (INCCIA); that’s available at IndianaClimate.org. You can find more information about me at https://web.ics.purdue.edu/~jsdukes/lab/index.html, and more information about the Purdue Climate Change Research Center at http://purdue.edu/climate. Hussein R. Sayani (u/Hussein_Sayani): I’m a climate scientist at the School of Earth and Atmospheric Science at Georgia Institute of Technology. I develop records of past ocean temperature, salinity, and wind variability in the tropical Pacific by measuring changes in the chemistry of fossil corals. These past climate records allow us to understand past climate changes in the tropical Pacific, a region that profoundly influences temperature and rainfall patterns around the planet, so that we can improve future predictions of global and regional climate change. Jessica Moerman (u/Jessica_Moerman): Hi reddit! My name is Jessica Moerman and I study how climate changed in the past - before we had weather stations. How you might ask? I study the chemical fingerprints of geologic archives like cave stalagmites, lake sediments, and ancient soil deposits to discover how temperature and rainfall varied over the last several ice age cycles. I have a Ph.D. in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences from the Georgia Institute of Technology and have conducted research at Johns Hopkins University, University of Michigan, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. I am now a AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow working on climate and environmental issues. Our guests will be joining us throughout the day (primarily in the afternoon Eastern Time) to answer your questions and discuss!
Hi reddit! In honor of the Super Bowl yesterday, we have assembled a panel of clinicians and researchers who specialize in the study of traumatic brain injury (often referred to as concussions). TBI is of growing interest to researchers, especially with questions surrounding the effects of chronic (repeated) injuries. Recent autopsies of deceased professional football players have found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a neurodegenerative disease thought to be caused by chronic TBI. TBI is also a problem in other groups as well. Military members are often at risk of TBI– between 2000 and 2012, there were over 310,000 reported TBIs in active duty military serving in Middle Eastern combat theaters. Likewise, in the general population, children and older adults experience the highest rates of TBI (according to recent data from the Centers for Disease Control). If you have ever had questions about head injury, or some of the long-term outcomes of head injury, now is the time to ask! The panel we have assembled represent expertise in pediatric, sports-related, military-related, and chronic brain injury. Our panel includes: Dr. Robert Stern (u/RobertAStern) - I am a Professor of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Anatomy & Neurobiology at Boston University (BU) School of Medicine, where I am also Director of the Clinical Core of the BU Alzheimer’s Disease Center. My primary area of research is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and the long-term effects of repetitive head impacts in athletes. I am Co-Founder and Director of Clinical Research for the BU CTE Center, and I am proud to be the lead investigator of the DIAGNOSE CTE Research Project, a $16 million, 7-year grant (funded by the National Institutes of Health) for a multi-center, longitudinal study to develop methods of diagnosing CTE during life as well as examining potential risk factors of the disease. I have published over 160 peer-reviewed journal articles, as well as two new textbooks, including Sports Neurology. As a clinical neuropsychologist, I have also developed several commonly used cognitive, including the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB). Dr. Keith Yeates (u/KeithYeates) - Keith Yeates: I am a pediatric neuropsychologist by training. I hold the Ronald and Irene Ward Chair in Pediatric Brain Injury and am Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. I head the University’s Integrated Concussion Research Program. I have been doing clinical and research work on TBI in children for about 30 years. Dr. Elisabeth Wilde (u/LisaWildePhD) - I am an Associate Professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of Utah and an Associate Professor in the Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Neurology and Radiology at Baylor College of Medicine. I also hold an appointment as a Health Research Scientist in the US Veterans Affairs Health System (VA Salt Lake City Healthcare System). My research interests include the use of advanced forms of neuroimaging to enhance diagnosis and prognosis, monitor recovery and neurodegeneration, evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention, and elucidate aspects of neuroplasticity in traumatic brain injury. As a clinical neuropsychologist, I have an interest in brain-behavior relationships involving cognitive, neurological, and functional outcome and clinical trials in traumatic brain injury and associated comorbidities. For the last 20 years, I have worked with patients with traumatic brain injury and concussion across a spectrum of age, severity, and acuity, with particular interests in children and adolescents, athletes, and Veteran and Active Duty Service Members with concussion or traumatic brain injury. I have participated in over 40 federally-funded clinical projects in TBI, and authored over 120 peer-reviewed publications. I am currently the Director of the Neuroimaging Core for the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs co-funded Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium (CENC) Neuroimaging Core and has been actively involved in the International Common Data Elements (CDE) initiative and co-leads the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Working Group for TBI. Dr. Vicki Anderson (u/VickiAndersonPhD) - I am a clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Melbourne and Royal Children’s Hospital, Australia. My work spans clinical practice, research and teaching, with my focus being on children with acquired brain injury and their families. In particular, I am interested in the impact of environment and family on socio-emotional recovery, and on developing parent-based psychosocial interventions to optimise child recovery. Dr. Chris Giza (u/grizwon) - I graduated from Dartmouth College, received my M.D. from West Virginia University and completed my training in Neurology at UCLA. Then I worked on the Yosemite Search and Rescue team before joining the UCLA Brain Injury Research Center in 1998. I served on the California State Athletic Commission from 2005-2015, and traveled to Afghanistan in 2011 as a civilian advisor to the Department of Defense. I founded and direct the UCLA Steve Tisch BrainSPORT program, and serve as Medical Director for the Operation MEND-Wounded Warrior Project mild TBI program. I co-authored concussion / mild TBI guidelines for the American Academy of Neurology, Centers for Disease Control and the Concussion in Sport Group (Berlin guidelines), and have been a clinical consultant for the NFL, NHL/NHLPA, NBA, MLB and Major League Soccer. I am a Professor of Pediatric Neurology and Neurosurgery at the David Geffen School of Medicine and UCLA Mattel Children’s Hospital.
Hello Reddit! We are a group of scientists and engineers in academia and industry working on batteries and energy storage. Batteries are ubiquitous in our daily lives and we all have complained about them when using our favorite portable electronic devices. They are also critical in enabling the next generation of electric vehicles, such as electric cars and electric airplanes, and large-scale stationary energy storage. Let’s discuss anything regarding batteries and other energy storage technologies! Our guests today are: Kristin Persson (u/KPatBerkeley): I am an Associate Professor in Materials Science and Engineering at UC Berkeley, and I direct the Materials Project which is a multi-institution, multi-national effort to compute the properties of all inorganic materials and provide the data and associated analysis algorithms to the world. The Persson group uses their expertise in materials informatics and the high-throughput infrastructure of the Materials Project to design novel photocatalysts, multi-valent battery electrode materials, Li-ion battery electrode materials and electrolytes for beyond-Li energy storage solutions. Twitter: @KPatBerkeley Shirley Meng (u/ShirleyMeng): I received my Ph.D. in Advance Materials for Micro & Nano Systems from the Singapore-MIT Alliance in 2005, after which I worked as a postdoc research fellow and became a research scientist at MIT. I currently hold the Zable Chair Professor in Energy Technologies and professor in NanoEngineering at University of California San Diego (UCSD), and am the principal investigator of the Laboratory for Energy Storage and Conversion (LESC) research group. The LESC research focuses on the direct integration of experimental techniques with first principles computation modeling for developing new materials and architectures for electrochemical energy storage. I am the founding Director of Sustainable Power and Energy Center (SPEC), consisting faculty members from interdisciplinary fields, who all focus on making breakthroughs in distributed energy generation, storage and the accompanying integration-management systems. I have received several prestigious awards, including International Battery Association Research Award (2019), Blavatnik National Awards Finalist (2018), American Chemical Society ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces Young Investigator Award (2018), International Coalition for Energy Storage and Innovation (ICESI) Inaugural Young Career Award (2018), IUMRS-Singapore Young Scientist Research Award (2017), C.W. Tobias Young Investigator Award of the Electrochemical Society (2016), BASF Volkswagen Electrochemistry Science Award (2015) and NSF CAREER Award (2011). I’ve published more than 170 peer-reviewed journal articles, two book chapters and eight patents, and am the elected Fellow of the Electrochemical Society. Ray Smith (u/thatkindofcell): I did a PhD in battery modeling at MIT focusing on active materials that exhibit phase changes during the charging and discharging process. Now, I do battery modeling research and development work at a San Francisco Bay Area company with particular focus on cell design, charging, and degradation processes. Matt Lacey (u/MattLacey): I graduated from the University of Southampton, United Kingdom, with a Master of Chemistry degree in 2008 and completed my PhD at the same university in 2012 under the supervision of Prof John R. Owen. I joined the Ångström Advanced Battery Centre in 2012 as a postdoc working on lithium-sulfur batteries, and in 2016 became a researcher in the same group. Since 2018 I am also a thematic researcher with the Swedish Electromobility Centre. My research interests centre on the electrochemistry of lithium batteries, particularly on ageing mechanisms. Twitter: @mjlacey Venkat Viswanathan (u/venkvis): I am faculty at Carnegie Mellon University, working on batteries for electrifying cars, trucks and planes. Find out more – Twitter: @venkvis; website: http://andrew.cmu.edu/~venkatv Dan Steingart (u/steingart): I am the Stanley Thompson Associate Professor of Chemical Metallurgy in the Departments of Earth and Environmental Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Columbia University, and the co-director of the Columbia Electrochemical Energy Center. My group studies the systematic behavior of electrochemical cells. You may be familiar with my study on the (on-linear) bouncing behavior of AA cells. Twitter: @steingart; websites: https://dansteingart.com/, https://ceec.engineering.columbia.edu/ Thank you so much for joining us! We will be around throughout the day, though mostly in the afternoon EST, to discuss energy storage with you!
Big science is on the rise. Recent endeavors, such as the Large Hadron Collider and the Human Genome Project, illustrate the rise in large-scale scientific inquiries. To assess whether big science is part of a general trend towards increased authorship, we queried the publicly available database Pubmed and measured the trend in number of authors per paper over the last century. Here we show that authorship has increased five-fold since 1913 and predict that by 2034, publications will boast an average of 8 authors.
Hi, I’m Alan Smith, Data visualisation editor at the Financial Times. I’ve just finished an experimental project at the FT to both visualise and sonify the historical yield curve - a large dataset of over 100,000 data points. I’ve filmed a step-by-step walkthrough of the project. And the end product, a combined animated data visualisation and sonification of four decades of the US yield curve, is available on YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GoQBWcNw6IU . My full article is on the FT, website: ft.com/music-from-data My work has also coincided with the the release of a new open source tool funded by Google* that allows users to make music from spreadsheets. So - is data sonification ready to be the next big thing in data presentation? Can it bring data to new audiences such as including the blind/visually impaired, podcast listeners, and those accessing the web via screenless devices with voice interfaces. Or is it a simple novelty? Ask me anything! TwoTone app funded by Google (https://app.twotone.io/) Proof: https://i.redd.it/pmafgrjd94n21.jpg
Factor analysis of allele frequencies was used to identify signals of polygenic selection on human intelligence. Four SNPs which reached genome-wide significance in previous meta-analyses were used. Allele frequencies for 26 population were obtained from 1000 Genomes. The resulting factor scores were highly correlated to average national IQ (r=0.92). A regression of IQ differences between subcontinental groups on the 4 SNPs g factor and an index of genome-wide genetic distances showed the former was an independent and significant predictor (Beta= 1.14), whereas genome-wide distances lost all predictive power. This finding suggests that the relationship between the 4 SNPs g factor and IQ is due to natural selection on a specific phenotype and not the result of a spurious correlation arising from genome-wide evolutionary processes such as random drift or migrations. A regression of IQs on genetic factor scores of developed countries was used to estimate the predicted genotypic IQs of developing countries. The residuals (difference between predicted and actual scores) were negatively correlated to per capita GDP and Human Development Index, implying that countries with low socioeconomic conditions have not yet reached their full intellectual potential.
Hi reddit! We’ve known since the 1800’s that pathogenic microbes are the cause of contagious diseases that have plagued humankind. However, it has only been over the last two decades that we have gained an appreciation that the “normal” microbes that live on and around us dramatically impact many chronic and non-contagious diseases that are now the leading causes of death in the world. This is most obvious in the gastrointestinal tract, or gut, where the community of microbes that lives within our guts can affect the likelihood of developing Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Crohn’s Disease, and gastrointestinal cancers. These gut microbes also contribute to metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this discussion, a panel of scientists and infectious disease doctors representing the Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (VI4) will answer questions regarding how the microbes in your gut can impact your health and how this information is being used to design potential treatments for a variety of diseases. Mariana Byndloss, DVM, PhD (u/Mariana_Byndloss): I have extensive experience studying the interactions between the host and intestinal microbiota during microbiota imbalance (dysbiosis). I’m particularly interested in how inflammation-mediated changes in gut epithelial metabolism lead to gut dysbiosis and increased risk of non-communicable diseases (namely IBD, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer). Jim Cassat, MD, PhD (u/Jim_Cassat): I am a pediatric infectious diseases physician. My research program focuses on the following: Staph aureus pathogenesis, bone infection (osteomyelitis), osteo-immune crosstalk, and how inflammatory bowel disease impacts bone health. Jane Ferguson, PhD (u/Jane_Ferguson): I am an Assistant Professor of Medicine, in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. I’m particularly interested in how environment and genetics combine to determine risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. My group studies how the microbiome interacts with diet, genetic background, and other factors to influence cardiometabolic disease. Maria Hadjifrangiskou, PhD (u/M_Hadjifrangiskou): I am fascinated by how bacteria understand their environment and respond to it and to each other. My lab works to understand mechanisms used by bacteria to sample the environment and use the info to subvert insults (like antibiotics) and persist in the host. The bacteria we study are uropathogenic E. coli, the primary cause of urinary tract infections worldwide. We have identified bacterial information systems that mediate intrinsic antibiotic resistance in this microbe, as well as mechanisms that lead to division of labor in the bacterial community in the gut, the vaginal space and the bladder. In my spare time, I spend time with my husband and 3 little girls, run, play MTG, as well as other nerdy strategy games. Follow me @BacterialTalk You can follow our work and the work of all the researchers at VI4 on twitter: @VI4Research We’ll be around to answer your questions between 1-4 pm EST. Thanks for joining us in this discussion today!
On Monday 11 July 2016 Thomson Reuters Corp. announced it had agreed to sell its intellectual property and science business (including Web of Science) to private-equity funds affiliated with Onex Corp. and Baring Private Equity Asia for $3.55 billion in cash. This announcement appeared after the authors submitted together a proposal to the Toronto School conference trying to expand the concept of ‘monopolies of knowledge’ as coined by the Canadian economist Harold Innis. The text presented here includes an abridged version of the proposal, which is currently under review. In this text the authors have also included some further discussion of recent developments as a means to provide further context.
Abortion is an accepted legal practice, in many countries, (Center for Reproductive Rights 2016), but that does not mean that there are not ethical implications which are being ignored. This article examines the ethical consequences in the light of a new understanding of them: the “infinite crime”. This variety of crime is one in which any given action has infinite consequences of a negative nature. Several motivations for elective abortion are considered individually with regards to their ethics, in the light of this new definition of an ethical crime. These include the desire for the freedom to be lazy; the freedom to be materialist; the freedom of time and its subcategory the freedom to create; and the freedom of movement. Furthermore, rape is examined and the question considered as to whether it is an infinite crime, and whether it is always a crime, at all, in a broader ethical context. The Principle of the Immorality of Conception by Rape, is defined. The issue of how to approach abortion in rape cases, is addressed. Other reasons for abortion are weighed, including abortion for reason of timing; abortion for reason of family sizing, abortion for reason of genetic deformity and abortion for reason of incest. A new value for human life is proposed. The implications for medicine and law, of this new understanding of the ethics of abortion, are outlined.
The article by Kane, Conway, Miura, and Colflesh (2007), on the n-back as a test of working memory, began its life as a full length manuscript. It was ultimately published, however, as a short report. The following discussion of the n-back task’s invention needed to be cut from the original manuscript, but we thought that others might find it useful.
The HeLa cell line, named after the patient Henrietta Lacks, was one the first human cell lines to be used for tissue culture. In the decades since its origin, it has become a feature in labs across the world. Despite its longevity, repeated detection of most HeLa marker chromosomes have lead the scientific community to view HeLa as a stable cell line and its corresponding findings to be reproducible. However, to date no investigation has examined other meaningful aspects of HeLa's genomic variability, such has whether HeLa's modal chromosome number remains constant. Considering the importance of a cell line's karyotype with respect to reproducibility, I sought to examine the stability of HeLa's karyotype by examining HeLa's modal chromosome number as reported in the literature.