An index of population structure (Fst) is used to test the null hypothesis that the genetic factor extracted from GWAS hits represents differences between populations due to migrations and drift. Employing the 1000 Genomes data, a regression of average IQ distances on the general intelligence genetic factor and Fst distances shows that the former is the only significant predictor of IQ distances(Beta= 0.82), whereas the population structure has no independent predictive power (Beta=-0.05). This result suggests that the null hypothesis can be rejected.
Cobalt Chromium alloy L605 is an underlying biomaterial for most new generation drug eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS). Suboptimal biocompatibility of stents clinically manifest as thrombosis and restenosis. We optimized a plasma-activated coating (PAC) technology to modify alloy L605 material surface (PAC-L605), for the first time, for enhanced biocompatibility. This study details in vitro characterization to identify and optimize the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the modified material surface PAC-L605. Surface hydrophilicity characterized post-modification with water contact angle and plasma kinetics, showed improved hydrophilicity for PAC-L605. Surface chemistry of PAC-L605 vs. L605, quantified with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), showed comparatively higher weight percent of carbon and nitrogen on PAC surfaces. The microscale, isotropic surface roughness of PAC-L605, was computed with NanoMap white light interferometry (WLI). Surface stiffness computed via nanoindentation at minimum compression load 0.19 mN - increasing to maximum load 50 mN, showed similar stiffness for PAC-L605 and L605 at higher load. Nanoindentation results confirmed robust adhesion of PAC to L605, and unique non-delaminating character of PAC under compression. Furthermore, surface modification at PAC-L605 interface was visualized via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Improvements of surface character for implantable cardiovascular materials could be achieved by plasma-activated coating (PAC). Optimal surface modifications may trigger desirable biological responses in vitro and in vivo.
The article by Kane, Conway, Miura, and Colflesh (2007), on the n-back as a test of working memory, began its life as a full length manuscript. It was ultimately published, however, as a short report. The following discussion of the n-back task’s invention needed to be cut from the original manuscript, but we thought that others might find it useful.
Open science hit the mainstream of discourse in the scientific community in 2016. Here I examine the emerging criticisms leveled against how we publish and disseminate science and argues it may be time to reframe the open science project. Rather than relying on instrumentalist language of “carrot-and-sticks” and “rewards-and-incentives” we should, instead, focus on the actual working conditions for scientists and the political economy in which they are embedded.