Pharmacogenetics and therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical practice

Genetic markers are ideal biomarkers, since they do notsuffer from reverse causation McMahon 2015

Review and meta-analysis of antidepressantpharmacogenetic findings in major depressive disorder. Kato 2008

The Promise of Psychiatric Pharmacogenomics Hamilton 2015

The potential impact of pharmacogenetic testing on medication adherence Haga 2013

The specific genetic variations that define variable phenotypes can be located on a Web site maintained by the Karolinska Institute (http://www.cypalleles.ki.se/). 


What is needed to incorporate pharmacogenetic testing into clinical practice de 2016

Pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in neuropsychiatry McMahon 2012





Common Genetic Variation and Antidepressant Efficacy in Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Three Genome-Wide Pharmacogenetic Studies Uher 2013

Clinical applications of CYP genotyping in psychiatry Kropp 2002 Spina 2014 Spina 2015


The combined effect of genetic polymorphisms and clinical parameters on treatment outcome in treatment-resistant depression Kautzky 2015

Therapeutic drug monitoring guidelines: Hiemke 2011

It has been estimated using genome-wide association data that the effect of common genetic variation is indeed substantial (around 42%) Tansey 2013.

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Tricyclic Antidepressants Hicks 2013
Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Hicks 2015

Gentechnikgesetz Österreich:

Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant drugs: an update after almost 20 years of research Fabbri 2013

"The GSRD candidate gene studies found that metabolism status according to cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may not be helpful to predict response and remission rates to antidepressants... Apart from the clinical studies on TRD, the GSRD moreover performed the so far largest candidate gene studies to investigate associations with treatment response phenotypes, finding that metabolism status as studied by cytochrome P450 genes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6) may not be helpful to predict response and remission rates to antidepressants." Schosser 2012


The polymorphic nature of cytochrome P450 genes modulates individual drug response, resulting in different metabolic profiles Ingelman-Sundberg 2007

Clinical implications of pharmaco- genetics of cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes  Kirchheiner 2007

Kirchheiner 2005






A poor metabolizer for cytochromes P450 2D6 and 2C19: a case report on antidepressant treatment Johnson 2006



Methods

Results
Incorporation of Pharmacogenomics into Routine Clinical Practice: the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline Development Process Caudle 2014

Discussion:
Learning from the past and looking to the future: Emerging perspectives for improving the treatment of psychiatric disorders Millan 2015.




Assessing the value of diagnostic tests: a framework for designing and evaluating trials