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Adaptation Patterns and Their Associations with Mismatch  Negativity (MMN): A EEG Study with Controlled Expectations         
  • Brian W. L. Wong,
  • Shuting Huo,
  • Urs Maurer
Brian W. L. Wong
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Shuting Huo
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
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Urs Maurer
The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Adaptation refers to the decreased neural response that occurs after repeated exposure to a stimulus. While many electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have investigated adaptation by using either single or multiple repetitions, the adaptation patterns under controlled expectations manifested in the two main auditory components, N1 and P2, are still largely unknown. Additionally, although multiple repetitions are commonly used in mismatch negativity (MMN) experiments, it is unclear how adaptation at different time windows contributes to this phenomenon. In this study, we conducted an EEG experiment with 37 healthy adults using a random stimulus arrangement and extended tone sequences to control expectations. We tracked the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components across the first ten tones to examine adaptation patterns. Our findings revealed an L-shaped adaptation pattern characterized by a significant decrease in N1 amplitude after the first repetition (N1 initial adaptation), followed by a continuous, linear increase in P2 amplitude after the first repetition (P2 subsequent adaptation), possibly indicating model adjustment. Regression analysis demonstrated that the peak amplitudes of both the N1 initial adaptation and the P2 subsequent adaptation significantly accounted for variance in MMN amplitude. These results suggest distinct adaptation patterns for multiple repetitions across different components and indicate that the MMN reflects a combination of two processes: the initial adaptation in the N1 and a continuous model adjustment effect in the P2. Understanding these processes separately could have implications for models of cognitive processing and clinical disorders.