1. _Describe the genus Australopithecus, including the range of dates it appears in the fossil record, major physical features including brain size, tooth complex (teeth and muscle for chewing) and what those features suggest for the Australopithecine diet, and any evidence for bipedalism. Why is this genus considered a hominid?_ Australopithecus lived from 3.9 mya to 1 mya. They all had small brains. They had huge chewing complex like large molars and bigger chewing muscles evidenced by huge saggital crests and zygomatics; this all suggests that their diets consisted of vegetation and tree barks: things that require heavy gnawing. They also had close-to humanlike pelvic structures, occipital crests. They are considered in the hominid family because they share a number of traits such as full bipedalism. 2. _Why is Aegyptopithecus an important primate fossil?_ The Aegyptopithecus is sometimes considered the very first Ape, due to it having many ape-like features such as being large, smaller eyes, active during daylight, and had low, rounded tooth clasps. Due to the fact that Evolution is a more continuous process, it is often difficult to track down the first known ape that diverged from its old-world monkey ancestors. However, the increase in traits observed in this species as well as the presence of old-world monkey-like traits suggest that Aegyptopithecus occured during a turbulant time where primates were beginning to appear. As such, Aegyptopithecus is important because 1) it may have been the first ape, but also 2) because even if it isn’t the first ape, its records give us a good indication of when our line first began, and therefore give us context as to why primates began to thrive. 3. _Give two possible reasons for the selection of human bipedalism._ One possible reason for the selection of human bipedalism comes from the hypothesis that humans diverged from their ancestors and preferred instead to cover large tracks of territory and hence walking on two legs was a trait that was selected because it is ENERGETICALLY EFFICIENT to cover more territory walking on two rather than four legs. Another reason was that bipedalism allowed us to free our arms from use during walking. Therefore, this allowed us to throw and catch and carry things. 4. _Describe the species Homo erectus. Include in your answer the range of dates it appears in the fossil record, geographic location, and the physical features of brain size, shape of the skull, tooth complex, and post-crania. Describe any evidence of culture for this species._ They span from 1.5mya to 150,000 years ago; it has been found in diverse areas such as Indonesia, China, Russia, North/East Africa, and Europe; they had large brains up to 1200 ccs, thick cranial bones, no post-orbital constriction, filled out instead by parietal bones, low, flat cranial vault, and a pointed skull in the back. They have smaller teeth which meant a diverse set of diets. There are also various evidences of social behaviour: the spread of tools across the world; but more importantly, evidence of hunting suggests that they are living groups, and must have shared and cooperated with each other. There are also evidence of stable home bases for groups, which suggest the development of culture for these species. 5. _Define the Multiregional Hypothesis and the Out of Africa Hypothesis for the appearance of fully modern humans._ The Multiregional Hypothesis, now largely considered dated, claims that modern humans evolved from Homo Erectus in SEPARATE geographic locations, with enough mixing that we all still remain one species. In contrast, the Out of Africa Hypothesis claims that we all evolved in Africa, and then dispersed out all over the world, letting selection take its place and allowed us to replaced whatever other hominids there were in the other worlds. 6. _What are the differences between Ramapiths and Dryopiths and why is this information important to the human fossil record?_ The Ramapiths and Dryopiths are the two types of the Myocene apes with Dryopiths predating Ramapiths. Dryopiths are Quadrapaths and are like tree-dwellers. However, their teeth patterns were similar to that of the Ramapiths, which are the more modern homonoids. Therefore, the fossils of these two types are important because they give insight and record to the split between apes-like (Ramapiths) and human-like homonoids.
Default figure
INTRODUCTION You are strongly encouraged to use for the preparation of your camera-ready manuscript together with the corresponding Springer class file llncs.cls. Only if you use of your manuscript. The LaTeX source of this instruction file for LaTeX users may be used as a template. This is located in the “authors” subdirectory in entitled typeinst.tex. There is a separate package for Word users. Kindly send the final and checked source and PDF files of your paper to the Contact Volume Editor. This is usually one of the organizers of the conference. You should make sure that the LaTeX and the PDF files are identical and correct and that only one version of your paper is sent. It is not possible to update files at a later stage. Please note that we do not need the printed paper. We would like to draw your attention to the fact that it is not possible to modify a paper in any way, once it has been published. This applies to both the printed book and the online version of the publication. Every detail, including the order of the names of the authors, should be checked before the paper is sent to the Volume Editors. Checking the PDF File Kindly assure that the Contact Volume Editor is given the name and email address of the contact author for your paper. The Contact Volume Editor uses these details to compile a list for our production department at SPS in India. Once the files have been worked upon, SPS sends a copy of the final pdf of each paper to its contact author. The contact author is asked to check through the final pdf to make sure that no errors have crept in during the transfer or preparation of the files. This should not be seen as an opportunity to update or copyedit the papers, which is not possible due to time constraints. Only errors introduced during the preparation of the files will be corrected. This round of checking takes place about two weeks after the files have been sent to the Editorial by the Contact Volume Editor, i.e., roughly seven weeks before the start of the conference for conference proceedings, or seven weeks before the volume leaves the printer’s, for post-proceedings. If SPS does not receive a reply from a particular contact author, within the timeframe given, then it is presumed that the author has found no errors in the paper. The tight publication schedule of LNCS does not allow SPS to send reminders or search for alternative email addresses on the Internet. In some cases, it is the Contact Volume Editor that checks all the final pdfs. In such cases, the authors are not involved in the checking phase. Additional Information Required by the Volume Editor If you have more than one surname, please make sure that the Volume Editor knows how you are to be listed in the author index. Copyright Forms The copyright form may be downloaded from the “For Authors" (Information for LNCS Authors) section of the LNCS Website: to the Contact Volume Editor, either as a scanned pdf or by fax or by courier. One author may sign on behalf of all of the other authors of a particular paper. Digital signatures are acceptable.