The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shown unexpected viral infection traits. Initially thought to affect respiratory health primarily, it also involves the gastrointestinal system. However, many complications during the pandemic were caused by the virus, including neurological, cardiovascular, dermatological, and metabolic issues. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has also been linked to cardiac complications, such as myocardial infarction, in individuals without cardiovascular risk factors. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines exacerbated the situation with possible adverse events (AEs). Vaccine side effects, like thromboembolic events, can be life-threatening or simply bothersome. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a nonlethal cardiac complication seen with COVID-19 and its vaccines. In this review, we summarized the POTS-COVID-19 relationship comprehensively.
Lyme Neuroborreliosis: A case reportBabak Sayad1, Arefeh Babazadeh2, Mohammad Barary3, Rezvan Hosseinzadeh4, Soheil Ebrahimpour2, Zeinab Mohseni Afshar1, *Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranInfectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IranStudent Research Committee, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranStudent Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
SARS-CoV-2 and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus coinfection: A case report and review of the diagnostic challengesZeinab Mohseni Afshar1, Mohammad Barary2, Arefeh Babazadeh3, Soheil Ebrahimpour3, *Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranStudent Research Committee, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranInfectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IranCorrespondence: Soheil Ebrahimpour, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Email: [email protected]
Pseudotumor cerebri due to brucellosis: A rare case reportEhsan Alimohammad1, Arefeh Babazadeh2, Soheil Ebrahimpour2, Ali Alizadeh Khatir3 Mohammad Barary4, Zeinab Mohseni Afshar5, *Department of Neurosurgery, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah, IranInfectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. IranMobility Impairment Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IranStudent Research Committee, Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranClinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IranCorrespondence: Zeinab Mohseni Afshar, Clinical Research Development Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Email: [email protected]
Influenza A infection can mimic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in case of their signs and symptoms, making it almost impossible to distinguish them clinically, necessitating using high-precision assays in such patients. Clinicians should be careful in treating such patients merely based on their unspecific manifestations.
Few cases of eosinophilia associated with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) have been reported. This study reported a 16-year-old male patient diagnosed with B-ALL and hypereosinophilia. He was admitted to the emergency department (ED) with urticaria and generalized itching. On initial examination, the skin was wholly erythematous, and urticarial lesions were scattered throughout the body. Peripheral blood smear (PBS) was examined, and eosinophils were seen in different fields. However, blast cells were not seen in the PBS. In bone marrow examination, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-positive and CD20-positive lymphoid blasts were reported along with eosinophilia. In immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, results were within normal limits for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) genes expressions. Moreover, no breakpoint cluster region (BCR)/Abelson murine leukemia 1 (ABL1) mRNA transcripts and no Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation were detected. Eventually, the B-ALL diagnosis was confirmed for the patient, and he was started on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) chemotherapy regimen. The patient was transferred to another facility and is continuing his treatment there.
Tuberculosis (TB) primarily involves the respiratory tract, but any organ in the body can be affected. In recent years, extrapulmonary TB cases have significantly increased due to the prevalence of immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of unilateral ankle arthritis due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
The side effects of COVID-19 vaccination were mostly self-restricted local reactions that quickly resolved. Nevertheless, rare autoimmune hepatitis cases have been reported in some vaccinated individuals. This article presents a young man who developed fulminant hepatitis a few days after vaccination with the first dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine.
Human monkeypox is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus resembling smallpox in clinical course, making it difficult to distinguish it from smallpox and varicella. Laboratory diagnostics are critical components of illness identification and surveillance, and novel tests are required for more precise and quick diagnosis. The majority of human infections occur in Central Africa, where monitoring in remote regions with little infrastructure is challenging but may be performed using evidence-based methods and teaching materials that educate public health personnel on the fundamental principles of this infection. New medications and vaccinations showed promising results for the treatment and prevention of the disease, but more studies are required to show their efficacy in the actual endemic settings. Thus, more studies are needed on the virus's epidemiology, ecology, and biology in endemic locations to better understand and prevent human infections. This review discussed the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical course of the monkeypox and indicated diagnostic and treatment approaches for this disease.
Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two different prophylactic antibiotic regimens (2-days vs. 7-days) in preventing surgical site infection in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Patients undergoing CABG were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. From 2016 to 2017, 370 cases were allocated to one of two groups. The groups received prophylactic antibiotic therapy for either 2-days or 7-days. All CABG patients were followed for days for surgical site infections. Two of the patients died after surgery, and 3 patients did not show up during the three-month follow-up evaluation and thus did not meet the study criteria. Results: Of the remaining 365 patients who participated in the full study, 198 (54.2%) were male, and 167 (45.7%) were female patients. The mean age of these cases was 58.64± 11.4. Of the 365 study participants who received prophylactic antibiotics prior to surgery, 16 patients developed surgical site infections (legs and sternum). Among these 16 patients, nine cases belong to the 7-days prophylactic antibiotic therapy group (2.4%), and seven cases belong to the 2-day prophylactic antibiotic therapy group (1.9%) (P=0.771). Conclusion: Comparison of two 2-day and 7-day prophylactic antibiotic regimens showed no significant difference in the incidence of post-surgical infection in the two groups.
Remdesivir has appeared to be the most effective medication against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is broadly administered to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients around the world. Remdesivir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor with a broad spectrum of antiviral activities against RNA viruses in in-vitro and in-vivo models of SARS-CoV, the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatment for adult and pediatric patients and has been used intravenously for patients requiring hospitalization for COVID-19. However, questions have been raised about the value of remdesivir in treating COVID-19, and governing bodies worldwide have been hesitant to approve this medication. Nevertheless, in the context of the public health emergency and the urgent need for effective treatments for patients with COVID-19, remdesivir has been approved by several authorities worldwide. Here, we discuss the characteristics and applications of remdesivir, and various challenging studies with different outcomes about its efficacy are also reviewed.
methamphetamine (MA) has a similar structure to amphetamine which can induce a wide range of symptoms, including alertness, aggressive behavior, chest pain, psychosis, seizures, developed by the psychomotor system stimulation. This case specifically discusses prolonged severe MA intoxication induced by a novel and unique way of the drug’s ingestion.