Coprofagos y Mamiferos


- Biodiversity and importance of estimation...

- Andes... Colombia (Biodiversity spot - relationship with altitude)

- Mammal diversity... (it’s difficult to study: time, high cost, big areas, many people, etc.)

- Solution: use of bio indicators like Dung beetles to predict distribution and diversity patterns.

The study and inventory of diverse areas is a global priority that should be supported with the highest research infrastructure as possible, especially when it comes to critical diverse groups such as mammals that could be declining in not very well conserved areas.

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) are one of the most commonly used bio indicators groups because of their ecological roles in the ecosystem (Nichols 2008). Adults and larvae are atracted and feed on dung produced by mammals (Whipple 2012), thus helping to recycle organic matter (Howden & Young 1981, (Halffter 1966), Gill 1991).

Among the countries located in the Neotropics, Colombia has one of the highest levels of dung beetles diversity. Knowledge about this group has been growing over the last two decades thanks to the publication of several important articles (Escobar & Medina 1996, Amat et al. 1997, Amezquita et al. 1999, Escobar 2000, Medina et al. 2001, 2002, Escobar 2004, Escobar et al. 2005, Fuentes & Camero 2006, Noriega et al. 2007, Martinez et al. 2009, Giraldo et al. 2011, Solis et al. 2011, Cultid et al. 2012, Delgado-Gómez et al. 2012, Noriega et al. 2012, Otavo et al. 2013).

Hypothesis: Beetle point pattern is predicted by altitude and mammal diversity. (No sería al reves Diego? Los escarabajos serian los predictores de la diversidad de los Mamiferos?)


Dung beetle database

We used a dung beetle matrix that was constructed using two main sources: A) 12 referential data bases (Luis Ángel Arango library catalogue, Antioquia virtual library catalogue, DialNet, ISI Web of Science, Latindex, PLoS, ProQuest, PubMed, REDALYC, Scopus, Science Direct and SciELO) in which we selected all the published articles, graduate and postgraduate thesis, and information of different institutions realised in Colombia related with dung beetles localities, and B) the information reviewed in 16940 specimens deposited in 26 national entomological collections (Noriega 2014).

Mammals database

Mammal richness map from IUCN database (Schipper 2008).

Mammal richness map from IUCN.

Spatial pattern point process...

Another way in which we can determine the spatial distribution of the sampling intensity is by using kernel smoothing (Diggle, 1985; Berman and Diggle, 1989; Bivand et. al., 2008). Such method computes the intensity continuously across the study area.

Assessing if a point pattern is random is a crucial step of the analysis. If we determine that the pattern is random it means that each point is independent from each other and from any other factor. Complete spatial randomness implies that events from the point process are equally as likely to occur in every regions of the study window. In other words, the location of one point does not affect the probability of another being observed nearby, each point is therefore completely independent from the others (Bivand 2008).

A window in the Andes...