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Ecological and evolutionary factors of intraspecific variation in inducible defenses: insights gained from Daphnia experiments
  • Mariko Nagano,
  • Hideyuki Doi
Mariko Nagano
University of Hyogo
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Hideyuki Doi
University of Hyogo
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Peer review status:ACCEPTED

22 Jun 2020Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
24 Jun 2020Assigned to Editor
24 Jun 2020Submission Checks Completed
26 Jun 2020Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
30 Jun 2020Editorial Decision: Accept

Abstract

Phenotypic variation among individuals and species is a fundamental principle of natural selection. In this review, we focus on numerous experiments involving the model species Daphnia (Crustacea) and categorize the factors, especially secondary ones, affecting intraspecific variations in inducible defense. Primary factors, such as predator type and density, determine the degree to which inducible defense expresses and increases or decreases. Secondary factors, on the other hand, act together with primary factors to inducible defense, or without primary factors on inducible defense. The secondary factors increase intra-species variation in inducible defense, and thus the level of adaptation of organisms varies within species. Future research will explore the potential for new secondary factors, as well as the relative importance between factors needs to be clarified.