Currently, the COVID‐19 has directly affected the millions of humans lives. The symptoms of the disease involving fever, malaise, chest infection, and breathing difficulties, were identified, and its existence is continuously becoming restructured. The World Health Organization (WHO) had mentioned the wide diagnostics test besides COVID-19 that would also assist medical facilities to recognize infectious diseases as well as currently focusing efficiently on preventing and afterward defeating this viral disease. The infection is usually transmitted among human beings in direct contact, greatest through the liquid bubbles generated through cough, sneeze, or speaking. This paper reviews the COVID 19 pandemic, its history, current updates, contact tracing applications, and use of emerging technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain for stopping the spreading and provide service online to the patient from a distance.
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
The fog computing is the emerging technology to compute, store, control and connecting smart devices with each other using cloud computing. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an architecture of uniquely identified interrelated physical things, these physical things are able to communicate with each other and can transmit and receive information. This research presents a framework of the combination of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Fog computing. The blockchain is also the emerging technology that provides a hyper, distributed, public, authentic ledger to record the transactions. Blockchains technology is a secured technology that can be a boon for the next generation computing. The combination of fog, blockchains, and IoT creates a new opportunity in this area. In this research, the author presents a middleware framework based on the blockchain, fog, and IoT. The framework is implemented and tested. The results are found positive.
The home automation system is indeed a system that offers a mobile application to monitor it through the smartphone or tablet. It can control home appliances like light, fans, air conditions, and smart security locks, etc. Bluetooth or Wi-Fi is used for remote control of things. Smart home is essentially how it looks: automating with such an easy touch of a button or a voice command the ability to manage things across the home. Several operations were both simple and extremely low-cost, such as setting up a light to turn on and off at the time of your moment. Others need much more money and resources, including advanced spy cameras. Some people thought that technology is taking a really huge part of our lives. It does! we’re living in a modern generation where smart and intelligent systems are necessary to be there wherever we are to make our lives easier and much better, for example, we can do many things faster, better, and more accurate.
Building the innovative blockchain-based architecture across the Internet of Things (IoT) platform for the education system could be an enticing mechanism to boost communication efficiency within the 5 G network. Wireless networking would have been the main research area allowing people to communicate without using the wires. It was established at the start of the Internet by retrieving the web pages to connect from one computer to another computer Moreover, high-speed, intelligent, powerful networks with numerous contemporary technologies, such as low power consumption, and so on, appear to be available in today’s world to connect among each other. The extension of fog features on physical things under IoT is allowed in this situation. One of the complex tasks throughout the area of mobile communications would be to design a new virtualization framework based on blockchain across the Internet of Things architecture. The goal of this research is to connect a new study for an educational system that contains Blockchain to the internet of things or keeping things cryptographically secure on the internet. This research combines with its improved blockchain and IoT to create an efficient interaction system between students, teachers, employers, developers, facilitators and accreditors on the Internet. This specified framework is detailed research’s great estimation.
Peoples are naturally communicators but devices are not. In the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture, the smart devices (SDs), sensors, programs and association of smart objects are connected together to transfer information among them. The SD is designed as physical device linked with computing resources that are capable to connect and communicate with another SD through any medium and protocol. The communication among intelligent physical things is a challenging task to exchange information that guaranteed to reach to the destination completely in a real time with the same order as sending without corruption. The reliable communication between physical things can be built in the transmission control protocol (TCP) layers. In TCP layer, the reliable communication is required the error detection, correction and confirmation to exchange information among smart devices. In this paper, the author represents a framework to deal with reliability issues to enable the adoption of IoT devices. The results found the improvement in reliability.
The wireless communication is the fastest-growing field of studies to enable humans to communicate with each other. Introducing a new blockchain architecture with big data analytics can be an enticing platform towards increasing connectivity performance throughout the smart cities. Blockchains can build a convenient mechanism allowing two devices to effectively transmit currency as well as data, to each other with a secure and reliable agreement. Smart cities provide an opportunity to connect people and places that use emerging technologies that help to improve urban planning and development. Smart cities can enhance public infrastructure and people's living experience. Presently, high-speed, intelligent, effective with several innovations, like low energy consumption, etc., seem to be accessible to interact together in the modern environment. By using the blockchain-based big data approach the physical devices are allowed to communicate securely with other physical devices in heterogeneous environments. This approach builds a new blockchain-based computing structure throughout the IoT technology configuration. This approach can examine blockchain technology to the underlying technology or maintains the IoT authentication reliable. This strengthens blockchain and cloud to develop an enabling IoT pervasive environment for secure communication among the physical objects.
Child Tracking System is a mobile application where the parent can monitor their children location in crowded environments. In addition to children, there is also the elderly people, and the disabled people, so the guidance or the person responsible of them can use this application to track their location. The parent or guidance side will have the application in which they can track, and on the other side, the child or the old person or the disabled person will have device that includes the GPS chip. The main goal of this research is to design an application with system that will help parents to keep track of their children, eventually reducing the cases in which the children or the other mentioned categories of people could be lost. The current used solution to this problem is that the children first have a wearable hand wrist in which they print their parent phone number, so when the child is lost there is a center in which the child is being taken and dealt with care till they contact the parent to come and pick the child up. The problem with the current way that it takes time, and there is a risk that child get totally lost or kidnapped before even reaching to any help, so the new way is better to even prevent them to go far away or to be lost for hours, thus the recovery here will be fast unlike the regular used way nowadays. That goal will be achieved throw systematically objectives starting from studying the existed systems, to planning and analysing, going to designing and implementing, and lastly, testing our own system.
The COVID-19 is an exponentially growing disease that has intentioned nations to use technologies to detect the coronavirus infection. Several nations are working greatly to fight against COVID-19. Many nations have been using a range of devices to combat the pandemic, seeking information about growth, monitoring as well as the leaking the confidential information of the residents. This research aims to assist infected people online using the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain technologies through smart devices. IoT-based healthcare devices gather useful information, provide additional insight through symptoms and behaviors, allow remote monitoring, and simply give people better self - determination and healthcare. Blockchain allows the secure transfer of patient health information, regulates the medical distribution network. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain to detect and prevent individuals to be COVID 19. This research provides a framework for patients with COVID-19 infectious disease and recognizes health issues and diagnoses online. Smart devices such as smartphones can install any mobile apps such as Aarogya Setu, Tawakkalna, and so on. These applications can track COVID-19 patients properly. The installation of mobile apps on smart devices focuses to reduce the time and cost and increase the performance of the infectious patient’s condition. A four-layer architecture is proposed using IoT and Blockchain technologies. Many research works focus on investigating, analyzing, and highlighting the affected individuals through guiding the COVID-19 infection. Eventually, various mobile apps are recognized and addressed in this paper.
In the fifth-generation communication system, secured and reliable data packets will rely on the network with high availability and low latency. The 5G network enables the dynamic control of nodes with low latency. Ultra-reliability is one of the challenging tasks in software-defined networks. The ultra-reliability feature is an interface working with high availability and low latency that brings in fifth-generation networks. The Internet of Things will work in the societies so that it required ultra-reliability features to empower the peoples as well as machines for collaborating with their neSoftware Defined Networksighbors. The connections among ultra-reliability networks are extremely hard situations to keep low packets corruption. The Software Defined Networks (SDN) will provide a platform for measuring, controlling, monitoring and scaling the smart objects in reality or virtually. Virtualization enables IT, specialists, to combine or separate the considerable networking or create new programmable networking among virtual machines. In this article, the authors are reviewed the architecture of SDN based on virtualization under the umbrella of 5G networks.
The Internet of Things (IoT) devices have capabilities to interact and communicate in 5G heterogeneous networks. The IoT devices also have capabilities to form a network with neighborhood devices without a centralized approach. This network is called the mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Through an infrastructure-less system of the Internet of Things environment, the MANET enables IoT nodes to interact with one another. Those IoT nodes could interactively connect, communicate as well as share knowledge between several nodes. The role of cloud throughout this structure would be to store as well as interpret information through IoT nodes. The communication security has also been introduced to be one of the techniques in which trying to solve the data transmission security issue that could result in the performance increase in cloud consumption and ubiquity. Our purpose in this research would be to establish a communication system among IoT nodes in such an embedded Cloud and MANET structure. The main goal of this research is to create an efficient and secure approach for communication in Cloud-MANET-IoT integrated framework. This approach is implemented and tested.
In the next generation of computing, Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) will play a very important role in the Internet of Things (IoT). The MANET is a kind of wireless networks that are self-organizing and auto connected in a decentralized system. Every device in MANET can be moved freely from one location to another in any direction. They can create a network with their neighbors’ smart devices and forward data to another device. The IoT-Cloud-MANET framework of smart devices is composed of IoT, cloud computing, and MANET. This framework can access and deliver cloud services to the MANET users through their smart devices in the IoT framework where all computations, data handling, and resource management are performed. The smart devices can move from one location to another within the range of the MANET network. Various MANETs can connect to the same cloud, they can use cloud service in a real time. For connecting the smart device of MANET to cloud needs integration with mobile apps. My main contribution in this research links a new methodology for providing secure communication on the internet of smart devices using MANET Concept in 5G. The research methodology uses the correct and efficient simulation of the desired study and can be implemented in a framework of the Internet of Things in 5G.