The plant kingdom is a rich source of bioactive compounds, many of which have used since pre-history for their therapeutic properties to treat a range of illnesses. More recently, some of these metabolites have attracted attention to their antineoplastic activities to treat various cancers relying on different mechanisms to kill. Some of these molecules are glycosides, which have proven useful as anti-cancer agents, namely podophyllotoxin (PPT) anaryltetralin lignan or alkaloids. There are three primary forms of alkaloids, such as indole alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine from Catharanthus roseus) quinoline alkaloid (camptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata) and diterpenoid alkaloid (taxol and it’s analogous from Taxus and Corylus species). This review considers a variety of plant biotechnology approaches used to enhance the production of these anticancer molecules in different species. In this regard, many in vitro culture techniques such as stimulation of suspension culture and hairy roots are being used to investigate the effects of plant growth regulators and elicitors on various explants.