Tunable phononic metamaterials for controlling the sound propagation

Abstract

We describe some details on different heterogeneous devices that display new and unexpected responses such as negative index of refraction, subwavelength imaging and negative bulk modulus which, in general are referred as metamaterials, particularly the mechanical and acoustic properties of pentamode metamaterials, also known as phononic metamaterials (PnM). We present a short review on the principal advances in tunable PnM including own results on this topic. Some own experimental and simulation evidences of the tunability of metamaterials-like phononic crystals are presented. We describe the tunability of the sound propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PnCs) based on steel cylinders periodically embedded in deionized water, comparing the steel cylinder diameter and lattice parameters and the effect of have a lens-like structure. Analysis is doing by observing the sound transmission spectrum. We observe band gaps dependent on the geometrical features of the PnCs.

Introduction

Metamaterials (MMs) are 1D, 2D or 3D novel artificial material devices, displaying interesting, unexpected and unusual properties not existing in nature, which will be completely determined by the disposition, structure or composition of its components [1, 2]. Thanks to advances in theoretical physics, computational modeling techniques, fabrication and characterization tools, in the past decade many different MMs devices has been possible to engineering i.e., photonic metamaterials for the light propagation control [3], plasmonic MMs controlling plasmon resonances [4], an class of planar MMs with abilities to mold light flow, called plasmonic metasurfaces [5], tunable MMs based on liquid crystals where the main metamaterial ingredient is a liquid crystal included in the metamaterial structure [6], MMs based on graphene layers composites [7], superconducting [8] and quantum MMs presenting nonlinear behaviors or described by quantum structure (dots, wires) [9], phononic MMs for cloaking, tuning or collimating mechanic waves [10-12], and others.

Non-natural properties of metamaterial-like devices includes for instance, negative refractive index [13], ultra high [14] or zero refraction [15], subwavelength imaging [16], negative bulk modulus or mass density [17], artificial magnetism [18], tunable electric permittivity [19], and others. Even when the negative refractive index was reported by Veselago [20] in 60´s, metamaterial term was used firstly by Walser until ending 90´s to describe the material performance of structures with properties beyond the limitations of conventional composites [1], particularly the electromagnetic metamaterials design. The above mentioned unprecedented properties of MMs have open some current and possible applications like for example, perfect absorber incident waves for antennas or radar devices [21, 22], optical MMS for Raman scattering applications [23], MMs for nanophotonics and nanocircuits fabrication [24], MMs used in sensor technologies [25], MMs has been also used in different biomedical and applications [26], the construction of superlens, hyper and metalenses for super-resolution imaging [27, 28], the use of metamaterials for cloaking [29] and invisibility [30] or electromagnetically induced transparency components for slow light [31, 32], engineered devices for collimate, tune, filter or cloak thermal or sonic waves [11, 12, 33, 34], and among.

In this work authors are interested in describe the principal advances and some applications on phononic metamaterials, putting special attention on the tunability properties MMs-like structures, including own results. The paper is organized as follows: in the next section authors present some details about the general properties of phononic metamaterials. Section 3 is focus to describe the main advances on tunable phononic crystals, describing some works about the tunability process. Sections 4 and 5 contain the experimental and simulations details and the concerning result and discussion, which evidence the tunability effect. We end our paper with some conclusions.

Phononic metamaterials

Phononic metamaterials (PnM) are carefully man-engineered structures capable to control and tune both, sound (acoustic vibrations) [11, 35] and heat (thermal vibrations) [33, 36] propagation in ways not observed in nature. In that sense, one can referred to thermal or acoustic PnM depending on its internal structure by virtue of acoustic vibration are in the Hz-KHz frequency range while thermal vibration correspond to THz range [11, 33], such that, the PnM internal structure needs be sensible to these frequencies. Phononic Crystals (PnC) are ref