Hello Reddit, I’m Michael S. Okun. I received my M.D. from the University of Florida and was also trained at Emory University, one of the world’s leading centers for movement disorders research. I am currently chairman of neurology, professor and co-director of the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida College of Medicine. The center, which is part of the Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases and the McKnight Brain Institute, is unique in that it is comprised of 40+ interdisciplinary faculty members from diverse areas of campus, all of whom are dedicated to care, outreach, education and research. I helped construct a one-stop, patient-centered clinical-research experience for national and international patients seen at the University of Florida. In 2015, I was recognized at the White House for being a Champion of Change for Parkinson’s Disease. I serve as national medical director for the Parkinson’s Foundation and have been supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Smallwood Foundation, the Tourette Syndrome Association, the Parkinson Alliance, the Bachmann-Strauss Foundation, the Parkinson’s Foundation and the Michael J. Fox Foundation. During my research career, I have explored non-motor basal ganglia brain features and I currently hold two NIH R01 grants on deep brain stimulation. I’ve been an integral part of pioneering studies exploring the cognitive, behavioral and mood effects of brain stimulation. I hold the Adelaide Lackner Professorship in Neurology and have published over 350 peer-reviewed articles. I’m a poet (“Lessons From the Bedside,” 1995) and my book “Parkinson’s Treatment: 10 Secrets to a Happier Life” was translated into over 20 languages. My latest book, “Tourette Syndrome: 10 Secrets to a Happier Life” was recently published. I’ll be answering your questions about Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders at 1 p.m. EST. Ask me anything! Thank you for spending an hour with me. It was a lot of fun and your questions were great. Here are some recent articles that you may be interested in reading: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2650798 https://theconversation.com/parkinsons-disease-new-drugs-and-treatments-but-where-are-the-doctors-83334 Michael S. Okun, M.D.
Cobalt Chromium alloy L605 is an underlying biomaterial for most new generation drug eluting stents (DES) and bare metal stents (BMS). Suboptimal biocompatibility of stents clinically manifest as thrombosis and restenosis. We optimized a plasma-activated coating (PAC) technology to modify alloy L605 material surface (PAC-L605), for the first time, for enhanced biocompatibility. This study details in vitro characterization to identify and optimize the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the modified material surface PAC-L605. Surface hydrophilicity characterized post-modification with water contact angle and plasma kinetics, showed improved hydrophilicity for PAC-L605. Surface chemistry of PAC-L605 vs. L605, quantified with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), showed comparatively higher weight percent of carbon and nitrogen on PAC surfaces. The microscale, isotropic surface roughness of PAC-L605, was computed with NanoMap white light interferometry (WLI). Surface stiffness computed via nanoindentation at minimum compression load 0.19 mN - increasing to maximum load 50 mN, showed similar stiffness for PAC-L605 and L605 at higher load. Nanoindentation results confirmed robust adhesion of PAC to L605, and unique non-delaminating character of PAC under compression. Furthermore, surface modification at PAC-L605 interface was visualized via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Improvements of surface character for implantable cardiovascular materials could be achieved by plasma-activated coating (PAC). Optimal surface modifications may trigger desirable biological responses in vitro and in vivo.
Are you on a first-name basis with Siri, Cortana, or your Google Assistant? If so, you’re both using AI and helping researchers like us make it better. Until recently, few people believed the field of artificial intelligence (AI) existed outside of science fiction. Today, AI-based technology pervades our work and personal lives, and companies large and small are pouring money into new AI research labs. The present success of AI did not, however, come out of nowhere. The applications we are seeing now are the direct outcome of 50 years of steady academic, government, and industry research. We are private industry leaders in AI research and development, and we want to discuss how AI has moved from the lab to the everyday world, whether the field has finally escaped its past boom and bust cycles, and what we can expect from AI in the coming years. Ask us anything! Yann LeCun, Facebook AI Research, New York, NY Eric Horvitz, Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA Peter Norvig, Google Inc., Mountain View, CA
Hi Reddit, my name is King-Wai Yau, and I’m a neuroscientist at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine studying sight and smell! I started out in medical school at the University of Hong Kong but soon switched back to basic science and came to study in the U.S I have been studying vision for over 40 years, focusing on its first step, in which light interacts with the rod and cone receptor cells of the retina, initiating a complex biochemical/biophysical process which your brain eventually interprets as vision. However, we now know that additional photoreceptor cells beyond the rods and cones you learn in school actually exist in the retina. These newly found cells mediate eye functions unrelated to creating images, like constricting your pupil in response to changes in light. These non-rod/non-cone photoreceptors are important for helping us appreciate the progress of the day and, for example, in enabling us to get over jet-lag when traveling across time zones. Recently, my research has focused on understanding how light-induced pupillary constriction in mouse eyes can occur without the brain. Unlike in humans, mice’s pupils can constrict without an obligatory connection to the brain because light-detecting pigment, present in the iris’ sphincter muscle, responds directly to light. These findings shed light on the evolutionary path of the pupillary light reflex in vertebrates, which is essential for regulating light entry into the eye especially under bright conditions. Outside of the lab, although I hardly watch any commercial television, I would compulsively put aside work in the evening to watch Nature and Nova programs when they come up on Public Television. Any knowledge about biology, physics and chemistry is fair game to me! Check out my latest research here I’ll be back at 1pm ET today to answer your questions.
I will return at 12PM EDT to answer questions live. Please feel free to leave questions ahead of time! I am Clare Chambers, University Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Cambridge. I am a political philosopher specialising in contemporary feminist and liberal theory. I’ve been researching and teaching at Cambridge for twelve years. I was educated in the analytical tradition of political theory at the University of Oxford, where I did Politics, Philosophy, and Economics as an undergraduate. After a year spent as a civil servant I studied for an MSc in Political Theory at the London School of Economics. At the LSE I continued working on analytical approaches to political theory in contemporary liberalism, but I also engaged in a sustained way with feminist thought, and with the work of Michel Foucault. It seemed obvious that Foucault’s analysis of power and social construction was of profound relevance to liberal theory, but l had never read work that engaged both traditions. Wanting to work on this combination for my doctorate, I returned to Oxford to be supervised by Prof Lois McNay, who specialises in feminist and post-structural theory, together with Prof David Miller, who specialises in contemporary analytical thought. The result was a thesis that later became my first book: Sex, Culture, and Justice: The Limits of Choice (2008). Sex, Culture, and Justice argues that the fact of social construction undermines the liberal focus on choice. Liberals treat choice as what I call a “normative transformer”: something that changes a situation from unjust to just. If someone is disadvantaged liberals are likely to criticise that disadvantage as an unjust inequality, but will change that assessment if the disadvantage results from the individual’s choice. For example, women may choose to take low-paid jobs, or to prioritise family over career, or to follow religions that treat them unequally, or to engage in practices associated with gender inequality. However, our choices are affected by social construction. Our social context affects the options that are available to us. It affects whether those options are generally thought to appropriate for people like us. And it affects what we want to do. I argue that, if our choices are socially constructed in these ways, it doesn’t make sense to use them as the measure for whether our situation or our society is just. Instead we need to develop the normative resources for critically analysing choice. Most feminists understand this, and liberals should, too. Feminism is a movement that seeks to empower women, which in part means giving women choice, but it is also a movement that recognises the profound limitations on individual choice, and the way that power, inequality, and social norms shape our choices. My most recent book also combines feminist and liberal analysis and tackles a specific question of state regulation. Against Marriage: An Egalitarian Defence of the Marriage-Free State argues that the state should not recognise marriage. Even if state-recognised marriage is reformed to include same-sex marriage, as has happened in many states recently, it still violates freedom and equality. Traditionally, marriage entrenches sexism and heterosexism, and this traditional symbolic meaning has not been destroyed. And all state recognition of marriage treats married and unmarried people and their children unequally, elevating one way of life or relationship form above others. The fact that state recognition of marriage involves endorsing a particular way of life also means that it undermines liberty, especially as political liberals understand that idea. Instead of recognising marriage, the state should regulate relationship practices. Other areas that I work on include multiculturalism and religion, political liberalism and the work of John Rawls, beauty and cosmetic surgery, the concept of equality of opportunity, and varieties of feminism including liberal feminism and radical feminism. I am about to start a new project on the political philosophy of the unmodified body. Thank you for joining me here! (My proof has been verified by the moderators of /r/philosophy.) Some of My Work: “Marriage as a Violation of Equality” - the first chapter of Against Marriage (OUP 2017). You can purchase this book with a 30% discount by going to the OUP site and using promocode AAFLYG6 at checkout Podcast interview on “The State and Marriage” “The Marriage Free State” - podcast recording and paper draft “Sex, Culture and Justice” - interview at 3:AM Magazine Multiculturalism Bites podcast interview on when intervention in peoples’ lives is justified Thank you very much everyone! I really enjoyed your questions. I’m logging off now as the sun starts to set here in the UK. If you’d like to read more about me and follow my work you can find lots more on my website at www.clarechambers.com, which is regularly updated. Goodbye!
We’re genetic counseling experts with the National Society of Genetic Counselors. Genetic counselors receive special training in two areas: genetics and counseling. We use our advanced training to guide and support patients seeking more information about how inherited diseases and conditions might affect them or their families, and to interpret genetic test results. The genetic counseling process integrates: Interpretation of family and medical histories to assess the chance of disease occurrence or recurrence. Education about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources and research. Counseling to promote informed choices and adaptation to the risk or condition. Helping patients and families prepare for or navigate at-home genetic test results. NSGC serves as an integral resource for patients, prospective students and healthcare providers interested in learning more about genetic counseling. We’re doing this AMA as part of the National Human Genome Research Institute’s National DNA Day Reddit AMA series! Ask us anything! Here’s a bit about those of us answering your questions today: Erica Ramos, MS, CGC: I am NSGC’s President and Personalized Medicine Expert. I can discuss next-generation DNA sequencing technologies such as whole genome and whole exome sequencing, and how these technologies are impacting healthcare and benefiting patients. Amy Sturm, MS, CGC, LGC: I am president-elect of NSGC and NSGC’s Cardiovascular Expert. I have more than 14 years of experience helping patients with a higher risk of genetic heart disease understand their familial risk and genetic testing results. I am a nationally recognized expert on familial hypercholesterolemia and can also discuss other hereditary forms of heart disease, including cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, familial aneurysms and others. Joy Larsen Haidle, MS, CGC: I am a past president of NSGC and an NSGC Cancer Expert. I can discuss hereditary cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome and hereditary breast cancer. I am an active public policy advocate for genetic testing. Jason Flanagan, MS, CGC: I am NSGC’s Reproductive Health Expert. I can discuss preconception and prenatal genetics, such as how genetics affect infertility and miscarriage, as well as the process and ethics surrounding preimplantation genetic screening. Ana Morales, MS, LGC: I am NSGC’s Cardiovascular Genetics and Spanish-Language Expert. I specialize in genetics and heart conditions and I’m a nationally recognized expert on cardiomyopathy, a common condition in which the heart muscle’s ability to pump blood is diminished. I can also discuss how I’ve worked to expand access to genetic information in the Spanish-speaking community. Brianne Kirkpatrick, MS, LCGC: I am NSGC’s Ancestry Expert. I can discuss the use of genealogy and DNA testing for exploring family connections and genetic health risks. I can also discuss limitations and benefits of the popular at-home genetic tests. Blair Stevens, MS, CGC: I am NSGC’s Prenatal Expert. I have 10 years of experience counseling patients and their families about their risks to have a baby with a genetic condition as well as testing options for conditions such as Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia and spina bifida. I have a passion for helping families who carry a pregnancy diagnosed with a genetic condition or developmental difference. Trish Brown, MS, LCGC: I am NSGC’s Policy and Nutrition Expert. I have more than 20 years of experience in clinical genetics and can discuss DNA testing for nutrition and fitness, at-home genetic tests, the study of pharmacogenetics, and policy issues. If you would like more information about genetic counselors and the role we can play in your healthcare, visit our website: aboutgeneticcounselors.com. Updated: Thank you all for participating in today’s AMA! We’ve enjoyed answering your questions. You can find more easy-to-understand genetics information on our website AboutGeneticCounselors.com. If you’re interested in genetics and infertility and have more questions on the topic, tune into a free webinar tonight at 7 p.m. CT. Sign up and see future webinar topics here: https://goo.gl/ZDFTrM Thank you, Reddit!
Ben and Ken: Thanks for offering many great questions, Redditers. We hope that our responses advanced the conversation about global climate change and possible solutions that include climate engineering. We certainly enjoyed this interaction. Signing off, Ken and Ben. Hi reddit! I’m Ken Caldeira and I work on a broad array of issues including the physical climate system, global energy systems, ocean acidification, and geoengineering. With the exception of the ocean acidifcation work, all of our research is based on performing simulations using computer models. Solar geoengineering involves trying to cool the Earth by deflecting some incoming sunlight away from our planet. Studies have shown that actions like putting small particles in the stratosphere could reflect some sunlight away from the Earth, potentially taking our climate back to a point similar to pre-industrial revolution. Of course, we know for sure about only one habitable planet, and toying around with this planet at the required scale would pose great risks – but allowing the Earth to warm from our greenhouse gas emissions also poses grave risks. Given that it is going to take time to transform our energy system into one that does not dump its waste in the atmosphere, what is the best path forward? I’m Ben van der Pluijm and I work in hazards geology and societal impacts of global change. The goal of 2016’s Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F) is ideal, but unlikely from voluntary greenhouse gas emission reductions alone. Building on our remarkable history of engineering applications to overcoming societal challenges, climate engineering should be included as a viable solution for reducing the impacts of global warming. Climate engineering takes two approaches: (1) Carbon dioxide removal, and (2) solar radiation management. The former addresses the cause of climate warming by removing greenhouse gas from the atmosphere (“treat the illness”). The latter offsets the warming effects of greenhouse gases by allowing Earth to absorb less solar radiation (“treat the symptoms”). Given their worldwide impact, planning must occur on a global scale, involving all nations, large and small, rich and poor, and not be limited to a few technologically advanced, wealthy countries. We’re looking forward to answering questions about environmental change and dealing with the impacts for human society, and whether various geoengineering techniques could really be expected to reduce climate damage and decrease damage to both ecosystems and people. We were here from noon to 2 PM EST to answer your questions. Thanks for Asking Us Anything!
We regret to hear that Stephen Hawking died tonight at the age of 76 We are creating a megathread for discussion of this topic here. The typical /r/science comment rules will not apply and we will allow mature, open discussion. This post may be updated as we are able. A few relevant links: Stephen Hawking’s AMA on /r/science BBC’s Obituary for Stephen Hawking If you would like to make a donation in his memory, the Stephen Hawking Foundation has the Dignity Campaign to help buy adapted wheelchair equipment for people suffering from motor neuron diseases. You could also consider donating to the ALS Association to support research into finding a cure for ALS and to provide support to ALS patients.
Hi Reddit! EDIT: And that’s all for us from the Swope Team! Thank you for the great questions. Sorry we couldn’t answer every one of them. And thank you for the reddit gold, even if it wasn’t made in a neutron star-neutron star collision. We are Ben Shappee, Maria Drout, Tony Piro, Josh Simon, Ryan Foley, Dave Coulter, and Charlie Kilpatrick, a group of astronomers from the Carnegie Observatories and UC Santa Cruz who were the first people ever to see light from two neutron stars colliding. We call ourselves the Swope Discovery Team because we used a telescope in Chile named after pioneering astronomer Henrietta Swope to find the light from the explosion that happened when the two stars crashed into each other over a hundred million years ago and sent gravitational waves toward Earth. You can read more about our discovery–just announced yesterday–here: https://carnegiescience.edu/node/2250 Or watch a video of us explaining what gravitational waves and neutron stars even are here: https://vimeo.com/238283885 We also took the first spectra of light from the event. Like prisms separate sunlight into the colors of the rainbow, spectra separate the light from a star or other object into its component wavelengths. Studying these spectra can help us answer a longstanding astrophysics mystery about the origin of certain heavy elements including gold and platinum. You can watch a video about our spectra here: https://vimeo.com/238284111 We’ll be back at 11 am ET to answer your questions, ask us anything! Dr. Ben Shappee: I just completed a Hubble, Carnegie-Princeton Fellowship at the Carnegie Observatories and am mere weeks into a faculty position at University of Hawaii’s Institute for Astronomy. I’m a founding member of the ASAS-SN supernova-hunting project. Dr. Maria Drout: I am currently a NASA Hubble Postdoctoral Fellow at the Carnegie Observatories and I also hold a research associate position at the University of Tornoto. I study supernovae and other exotic transients. Dr. Tony Piro: I am a theoretical astrophysicist and the George Ellery Hale Distinguished Scholar in Theoretical Astrophysics at the Carnegie Observatories. I am the P.I. of the Swope Supernova Survey. Dr. Josh Simon: I am a staff scientist at the Carnegie Observatories. I study nearby galaxies, which help me answer questions about dark matter, star formation, and the process of galaxy evolution. Dr. Ryan Foley: I am a a faculty member at UC Santa Cruz. I represented the Swope Team at the LIGO and NSF press conference about the neutron star collision discovery on Monday in Washington, DC. Dr. Charlie Kilpatrick: I am a postdoc at UC Santa Cruz. I specialize in supernovae. Almost Dr. Dave Coulter: I am a second year graduate student at UC Santa Cruz. I am a founding member of the Swope Supernova Survey. EDIT: Here’s our team! https://imgur.com/gallery/8lZyg