Military intervention and state capacity
This would be the one to be presented at APEE. We should also try to present this in some capacity at Public Choice (I'm supposing you are going to PC as well)
Fiscal capacity and monetary policy
This one would be a more theoretical one. I can fill you in on the pure theory of fiscal capacity and we can try to see what the consequences for monetary policy would be. Of course, empirical evidence would be crucial to sell the argument but I would focus on the theory here since there isn't much on this
Would there be money in a zero transaction costs world?
Short paper idea. I'm not well versed in monetary theory but this could be a cool short publication. Maybe RAE?
Quotes OMG paper by topic
HistoryMcguireDavisHierarchical Structure and OrganizationHierarchyNGIC 2009OMGs maintain a strong centralized leadership that implements rules regulating membership, conduct, and criminal activity. (8)OMGs are highly structured criminal organizations whose members engage in criminal activities such as violent crime, weapons trafficking, and drug trafficking. (8)Lauchs et al. 2015Each club has based its structure on the original Hell's Angels guide. (2)[OMGs] are clearly organized within a hierarchy and have a constitution with formal procedures. (25)Puppet ClubsNGIC 2009national-level OMGs maintain criminal networks of regional and local motorcycle clubs, commonly referred as "support", "puppet", or "duck" clubs, whose members conduct criminal activities in support of larger OMGs, and who are a source of new members. (8)Lauchs et al. 2015Puppet gangs are used by [OMGs] to recruit new members [...]. The same potential members then commit the crimes and/or take responsibility for the crime away from the patched members and senior management. By committing the crimes and insulating the members they prove their loyalty to the chapter and ensure their later incorporation into full membership. (30)EnforcementLauchs et al. 2015the Big 4 have elite subgroups responsible for lethal violence. (3)TaxesNGIC 2015OMGs demand monthly payments from each motorcycle club or sport bike club member in exchange for their use of support patches. Refusal to wear a support patch results in violence. (23)MembershipNGIC 2009Current law enforcement intelligence estimates that more than 20,000 validated OMG members, divided among hundreds of OMGs, reside in the United States (8)EvolutionCDOJ 2008OMGs, once perceived as groups of troublemakers and social rebels, evolved through the years into sophisticated criminal organizations. (14)Lauchs et al. 2015Why "outlaw"? "Taking the lead in motorcycle organizations the AMA [...] outlined what it considered to be 'outlaw' clubs; that is, those that did not meet the standards or requirements for membership in the AMA [...]. These 'outlaw' clubs were not necessarily considered criminal, but were outside of the remit of the AMA and thus were not recognized as participants for organized rallies and events. (10)a proportion of these clubs were started by combatants returning from war, many of whom found themselves unable to adjust to life in the world away from the conflict. (12)returned soldiers from foreign wars were [...] still attracted not just to motorcycles but to the [OMGs] lifestyle and brotherhood. Clubs formed from former soldiers in the US and Australia after the Vietnam War. (15)Club members have [...] found it hard to find employment and often turn to petty crime for income. (2)As time passed there was a gradual shift towards serious criminal activity by the members of [OMGs] which progressed to participation in organized crime. [Although I]t is unclear when the participation in organized crime begun. [...] It is also possible that the move was a natural progression from being a violent club to recruitment of that violence for profit. (2)Barbarian activity is the original raison d'etre of [OMGs]. It is the core of the attraction for people to join [...]. If a person simply wished to participate in organized crime they would have sufficient opportunities without going through the difficult and lengthy process of obtaining membership in an [OMG]; they simply like and are attracted to barbarian behaviour. (32)Originally perceived by law enforcement as nothing more than groups of drunken brawlers they have more recently been viewed as sophisticated and organized groups of criminals. (54)On the expansion in the 1970s and the "patch over" strategy: "[Patching over] involves a larger club moving into a new location and, either through force or negotiation, taking over the territory. The result is that any smaller clubs in the area are either swallowed up by the [OMG] or disbanded. For the smaller club it produces instant recognition, reputation, and strength in numbers, whilst for the [OMG] it offers a greater network of opportunities and organizations to work with/through. This process began in the US during the 1965-75 period [...] as the larger clubs vied for power against each other. (16)NGIC 2015Motorcycle Gangs have evolved over the past 67 years from bar room brawlers to sophisticated criminals. OMGs, which were formed in the United States, over the last 50 years have spread internationally and today [...] are a global phenomenon. The Hells Angels in particular stands out for its international connectivity. (22)Criminal ActivitiesDrug TraffickingCDOJ 2008According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the HAMC began large-scale drug distribution during mid-1967, and they soon became the leading manufacturer and distributor of LDS. In recent times, members have been involved in the transportation and distribution of cocaine, ecstasy, hashish, heroin, LSD, and PCP. (15)October 2008, after 3 years of investigation by the ATF, 61 members of the Mongols are arrested in California (including the national president and chapter presidents) for, among other crimes, the trafficking of narcotics. (16)Lauchs et al. 2015the Bandidos were formed for the specific role of controlling the illicit drug trade and prostitution in Texas. (20)All jurisdictions that contain [OMGs] also identify members as key players in the drug market. (33)[OMGs] involvement in drugs began as them being couriers or methamphetamine and cannabis. (35)There have been many recent arrests of [OMGs] members in relation to methamphetamine sale and production; however, it would be misleading to assume that they are the only providers or the rulers of the marketplace, for example in the late 1990s Southeast Asian gangs were involved in the middle- to upper-level trade in methamphetamines (35) [OMGs] may have a competitive advantage through control of sections of the market [for narcotics]. For example, many [OMGs] operate security firms that police the doors of nightclubs and other entertainment venues. This allows them to ensure competitors do not gain entry to their lucrative drug marketplaces. (36)Barker and Human 2009The authors analyze a 631 newspaper articles (among those available on LexisNexis) mentioning one or more of the four largest North American OMGs between the years 1980 and 2005. The Angels are mentioned in 209 articles. According to their analysis, during this period, the Angels had been involved in at least ten criminal incidents in the United States (including the production and distribution of methamphetamine and the distribution of cocaine), three episodes in Canada, and three episodes in Australia. (177)NGIC 2015Methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana ranked respectively as the top three drugs that led to OMG arrests over the past two years. (26)Over the past several years, there has been reporting of OMG members retaining employment in various white-collar professions. (26)ViolenceCDOJ 2008[The ATF] labeled the Mongols as the most violent and dangerous OMG in the nation. (15)Lauchs et al. 2015territorial disputes are part of the original bikie psyche (31)NGIC 2015Over the past two years, larger motorcycle gangs have continued to gain or maintain control of geographic areas and have established new chapters, thereby attracting many new members. This has caused geographic clashes for dominance in overlapping gang-controlled areas. (24)ConflictCDOJ 2008[The rivalry between Mongols and HAMC] stems from years of conflict that began in the 1980s when the Mongols seized control of Southern California from the HAMC. (15)The Mongols are likely responsible for the murder of the president of the president of the San Francisco chapter of the HAMC in September 2008. (15)