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The persistence of equine strangles
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  • Luke Mclinden,
  • Sarah Freeman,
  • Janet Daly,
  • Adam Blanchard,
  • Jeremy Kemp-Symonds,
  • Andrew Waller
Luke Mclinden
University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Sarah Freeman
University of Nottingham
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Janet Daly
University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
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Adam Blanchard
University of Nottingham
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Jeremy Kemp-Symonds
Bransby Horses Rescue and Welfare
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Andrew Waller
Intervacc AB
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Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative organism of the upper respiratory disease of equids, strangles, characterised by pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, and mucopurulent nasal discharge. Strangles was first reported over 750 years ago and continues to be of significance in equine populations across the globe. This review discusses how S. equi has adapted, the clinical manifestation of strangles, and how clinicians and caregivers can tackle the disease in the future. S. equi evolved from the commensal, and occasionally opportunistic pathogen, Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus refining its capabilities as it became host restricted. The success of S. equi can be attributed to its ability to cause both acute and persistent infection, the latter occurring in about 10% of those infected. In this carrier state, S. equi persists in the guttural pouch without causing clinical signs, intermittently shedding into the environment, and encountering naïve animals. Insight into the S. equi genome and lifestyle has led to advances in diagnostic assays and the development of a safe and efficacious recombinant-fusion vaccine, giving clinicians and caregivers the tools to better combat this infection. Alongside rigorous biosecurity protocols and pragmatic control measures such as screening new arrivals for exposure and carrier status, these new technologies demonstrate that strangles can be an increasingly preventable infection.
06 Dec 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
08 Dec 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
10 Feb 20231st Revision Received
22 Feb 2023Assigned to Editor
22 Feb 2023Submission Checks Completed
23 Feb 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
25 Apr 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
25 Apr 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
11 May 20232nd Revision Received
11 May 2023Submission Checks Completed
11 May 2023Assigned to Editor
17 May 2023Editorial Decision: Accept