Delineating the role of oncology research models for the development of
diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for cancer.
AbstractCancer causes the second highest mortality rate after the cardiac
diseases in humans. In addition to death rates, cancer morbidity paints
a rather grim picture. Despite the advances in treatment modalities,
cancer management still remains as a challenging task. In vitro
biological evaluations use cytotoxicity as one of the most essential
indications. In vitro, cytotoxic drugs cause cell membrane
disintegration, protein synthesis inhibition, and irreversible receptor
binding, among other things. To identify cell death caused by these
insults, a number of short-term cytotoxic effects and cell proliferation
assays have been developed and employed. Chemical carcinogenesis and
xenograft models for imitating human malignancies are among the in vivo
models that have been developed. This article discusses the current
in-vitro and animal models used in the discovery and therapeutic
efficacy assessment of anti-cancer drugs.