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Tooth Marker of Ecological Abnormality: the Interpretation of Stress in Extinct Mega Herbivores (Proboscideans) of the Siwaliks of Pakistan
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  • Muhammad Ameen,
  • Abdul Khan,
  • Rana Ahmad,
  • Muhammad Ijaz,
  • Muhammad Imran
Muhammad Ameen
University of the Punjab

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

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Abdul Khan
University of the Punjab
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Rana Ahmad
University of the Punjab
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Muhammad Ijaz
University of Agriculture Faisalabad
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Muhammad Imran
University of the Punjab
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Climate effects habitat and define species physiology. Climatic regimes were different in past and adaptability of different species varied. Climate change causes certain stress on animal, recorded as Enamel Hypoplasia (EH). Proboscideans, the mega herbivores were extensively represented in the Siwaliks of Pakistan between Middle Miocene to Pleistocene (~15.2 – ~1.0Ma). The study is carried out on 15 species from 9 genera and 4 families using 319 teeth from 266 individual quarries. Our results revealed 20.06% (64/319) teeth infected by EH. Family Deinotheriidae faced higher stress during the terminal of middle Miocene (EH 25%). Dental structure indicate that this family preferred soft vegetation like C3 plants and failed to survive in grassland ecology at the onset of Late Miocene (~10-9 Ma). Gomphotheriids (EH 21.05%) and Stegodontids (EH 23.40%) survived through warm and dry climatic conditions of the Late Miocene, but could not survive the cool and dry climate of Plio-Pleistocene where grasslands were abundant with less browsing activity. Family Elephantidae (EH 8.75%) was successful in drier conditions, and utilized the exclusive C4 diet in open grasslands as efficient grazers, indicated by their tooth morphology. Elephantids were dominant of the proboscideans in open grassland and drier climate during Plio-Pleistocene in Indian subcontinent. We assume that change in the Siwalik climate was governed by microclimate as in the present day Siwaliks grasslands are widely distributed at low altitudes with lower mean annual precipitation and forestlands still persist in Myanmar and Nepal which receives more rainfall and have lower mean annual temperature.
26 Aug 2021Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
11 Sep 2021Submission Checks Completed
11 Sep 2021Assigned to Editor
15 Sep 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
11 Oct 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 Oct 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
13 Dec 20211st Revision Received
14 Dec 2021Assigned to Editor
14 Dec 2021Submission Checks Completed
14 Dec 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
24 Dec 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
28 Jan 20222nd Revision Received
28 Jan 2022Assigned to Editor
28 Jan 2022Submission Checks Completed
28 Jan 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
16 Feb 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
10 Apr 20223rd Revision Received
11 Apr 2022Submission Checks Completed
11 Apr 2022Assigned to Editor
11 Apr 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
28 Apr 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
22 Jun 20224th Revision Received
23 Jun 2022Submission Checks Completed
23 Jun 2022Assigned to Editor
23 Jun 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
20 Jul 2022Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
18 Sep 20225th Revision Received
19 Sep 2022Submission Checks Completed
19 Sep 2022Assigned to Editor
19 Sep 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
29 Sep 2022Editorial Decision: Accept
Nov 2022Published in Ecology and Evolution volume 12 issue 11. 10.1002/ece3.9432