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Human–wildlife conflict in the roof of the world: Understanding multidimensional perspectives through a systematic review
  • Prashanti Sharma,
  • Nakul Chettri,
  • Kesang Wangchuk
Prashanti Sharma
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
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Nakul Chettri
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
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Kesang Wangchuk
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
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Abstract

Human–wildlife conflicts have intensified by many folds and at different levels in the recent years. The same is true in the case of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH), the roof of the world and a region known for its wealth in biodiversity. We present systematic literature review (SLR) using the search, appraisal, synthesis, and analysis (SALSA) framework; and for spatial and network analysis, we employed the VOSviewer software. The review – covering 240 peer- articles within a span of 27 years (from 1982 to 2019) – revealed that in the last decade of that period, there was a 57 per cent increase in publications but with disproportionate geographical and thematic focus. About 82 per cent of the research concentrated on protected areas large carnivores and mega herbivores played a big role in such conflicts. About 53 per cent of the studies were based on questionnaires based and the main driver was reported was the habitat disturbance of the animals due to land-cover change, urbanization, and increase in human population. On the management front, the studies reported the use of traditional protection techniques like guarding and fencing. Our analysis of 681 keywords revealed prominent focus on ‘human-wildlife conflict’, ‘Nepal’, ‘Bhutan’, ‘Snow Leopard’ and ‘Leopard’ indicating the issue are linked with these species and countries. The involvement of 640 authors from 36 countries indicates increasing interest and Nepal and India are playing key role from the region. As for the spatial and network analysis that was conducted, while it showed variations in terms of localities, there were conspicuous limitations in terms of having a transboundary focus. Thus, particular attention ought to be paid to building transboundary partnerships and improving management interventions; there is also a pressing need to understand the patterns of human–wildlife convergence, especially involving meso mammals.

Peer review status:ACCEPTED

22 Jun 2021Submitted to Ecology and Evolution
23 Jun 2021Submission Checks Completed
23 Jun 2021Assigned to Editor
29 Jun 2021Reviewer(s) Assigned
13 Jul 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
14 Jul 2021Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
17 Jul 20211st Revision Received
19 Jul 2021Submission Checks Completed
19 Jul 2021Assigned to Editor
19 Jul 2021Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
19 Jul 2021Editorial Decision: Accept