Background: Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) are often prescribed diuretics before the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. It is unknown whether outpatient medication weaning strategies affect duration of home oxygen therapy. Methods: This was a secondary cohort analysis of infants born <32 weeks gestational age with BPD from 2015-2018 discharged from our NICU or regional NICUs, referred to our pulmonary clinic for home oxygen management. We compared three groups: those discharged with no diuretics, diuretics actively weaned (dose decreased) and diuretics passively weaned (dose not adjusted). Results: Out of 125 infants, 116 were included in the analysis. Forty-five infants were discharged without diuretics; 52 infants were discharged with diuretics that were actively weaned; 19 infants were discharged with diuretics that were passively weaned. Infants who were passively weaned spent the most time on home oxygen (median 28 weeks, IQR 16-52; p=0.011); there were no differences in home oxygen duration in infants actively weaned (median 13 weeks, IQR 10-26) versus not on diuretics (median 22 weeks, IQR 12-30, p=0.285). Multivariable adjustment for other illness characteristics associated with duration of home oxygen did not change this finding. Conclusions: Active weaning of diuretics did not prolong duration of home oxygen, in the setting of a standardized clinical guideline for weaning home oxygen in infants with BPD. These data can serve as baseline information to implement and test standardized strategies for outpatient medication management.
Objectives: Universal implementation of cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening (NBS) has led to the diagnostic dilemma of infants with CF screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID), for which there is limited guidance regarding prognosis and standardized care. Rates of reclassification from CFSPID to CF vary and risk factors for reclassification are unknown. We investigated whether clinical characteristics are associated with risk of reclassification from CFSPID to a CF diagnosis. Methods: Children with a positive CF NBS were recruited from two sites in California. Retrospective, longitudinal, and cross-sectional data were collected. A subset of subjects had nasal epithelial cells collected for CFTR functional assessment. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the risk of CFSPID-to-CF reclassification. Results: A total of 112 children completed the study (CF=53, CFSPID=59). Phenotypic characteristics between groups showed differences in pancreatic insufficiency prevalence, immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) levels, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA) colonization. Spirometry measures were not different between groups. Nasal epithelial cells from 10 subjects showed 7-30% of wild type (WT)-CFTR function in those who reclassified and 27-67% of WT-CFTR function in those who retained the CFSPID designation. Modeling revealed that increasing sweat chloride concentration (sw[Cl -]) and PSA colonization were independent risk factors for reclassification to CF. Conclusion: Increasing sw[Cl -] and history of PSA colonization are associated with risk of reclassification from CFSPID to CF in a population with high IRT and two CFTR variants. Close follow-up to monitor phenotypic changes remains critical in this population. The role of CFTR functional assays in this population requires further exploration.
Background. The COVID-19 pandemic has spread across the world, leading to government measures associated with a negative impact on mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on depression, anxiety and resilience in Dutch people with cystic fibrosis (PwCF) or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PwPCD) and their caregivers during the pandemic. Methods. Adolescents (12-17 years), adults and caregivers of children (0-17 years) with CF or PCD completed questionnaires on depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and resilience (BRS) between September 2020 and February 2021. The psychosocial impact of COVID-19 was measured by the Exposure and Family Impact Survey (CEFIS) Part 2. Mixed model analyses compared PHQ-9 and GAD-7 results to participants’ pre-pandemic scores. Results. 110 participants (10 PwCF, 31 PwPCD, 52 CF caregivers, 17 PCD caregivers) completed questionnaires during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic outcomes were available for 87 participants. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety (PHQ-9 or GAD-7 scores ≥5) in PwCF and PwPCD and their caregivers before and during the pandemic was high, with an increase in depression in PwCF (2.75; 95%-CI: 0.82 to 4.68) and increase in anxiety in CF caregivers (1.03; 0.09 to 1.96) during the pandemic. Resilience was within the normal range for all groups, CEFIS scores corresponded to a low to normal impact. Conclusion. PwCF and PwPCD and their caregivers were at high risk of increased depression and anxiety symptoms both before and during the pandemic, which emphasizes the importance of mental health screening and psychological care in CF and PCD.
Background and aims: We aimed to analyze the correlation of urinary with serum NT-proBNP concentrations in acute bronchiolitis and its association with the severity of the disease. Material and Methods: A pilot observational study conducted between 1st October and 31st March 2022, including acute bronchiolitis cases who attended our institution. Serum and urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using the Alere NT-proBNP assay in time-matched urine and blood samples. We explored the linear relationship between both concentrations and compared clinical outcomes indicative of severe acute bronchiolitis between groups of raised and normal urinary NT-proBNP. Results: 17 infants (median age 68 (36-91) days) with 36 time-matched samples were included. The urinary and serum concentrations of NT-proBNP were significantly correlated with (r=0.867 & R-squared coefficient=0.751; p<0.001). The log-10-transformed urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were higher at the time of hospital admission in those infants that required PICU admission with ventilatory support compared with those without this outcome (1.85 (1.16-2.44) pg/mg vs 0.63 (0.45-0.84) pg/mg); p<0.001); and resulted positively and strongly correlated with the duration of the ventilatory support (rho=0.76; p<0.001) and the LOS hospitalization (rho=0.84; p<0.001) Conclusion: The measurement of urinary NT-proBNP concentrations could be a reliable surrogate for serum NT-proBNP levels highlighting the potential value of the urinary NT-proBNP as a non-invasive tool to assess severity in acute bronchiolitis.
In conclusion, our data suggest that subjects with genotype 5T;TG12/VVCC likely have a very low risk of progressing to CF, as compared to those with F508del/5T;TG12. 4 This observation could lead to differentiate follow up in presence of at least one 5T;TG12. Knowing these data is crucial to offer a useful counseling for CRMS/CFSPID infants and for non‐CF adults with CBAVD alone. Anyway further data are needed to evaluate the outcomes after a longer follow up.
Introduction: Assessment of and intervention for sleep-disordered breathing and malnutrition are related to respiratory management for preventing recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) in children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, the specific standard has not been clarified. Purpose: The study aimed to obtain the risk factors and the predictive index for RRTIs and/or ARF in children with SMA. Methods: In this retrospective study, the differences in clinical characteristics in patients with or without RRTIs and ARF were compared, and binary logistic regression analysis was carried out. The best cutoff points of the positive predictive index were obtained. Results: Type 1 (OR = 4.12, 95% CI 1.30-13.07, P =.016) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.24, P =.001) were risk factors, while body mass index z score (BMIz) (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.94, P =.018) and mean pulse oxygen saturation (MSpO 2) (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.50-0.91, P =.010) were protective factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the standard of MSpO 2 < 96% and AHI > 10 events/h or BMIz < -1 with the occurrence of RRTIs and/or ARF were 0.513 and 0.957, respectively. Conclusion: SMA Type 1, BMIz, AHI and MSpO 2 should be used to estimate the risk for RRTI or ARF in children with SMA. MSpO 2 < 96%, and AHI > 10 events/h or BMIz < -1 should be used as the intervention standard.
Objective: To evaluate the functional capacity, pulmonary function and quality of life of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and to test the reproducibility of functional capacity tests in this population. Method: Cross-sectional study with volunteers with SCA genotype Hb-SS (SCAG), aged 6 to 18 years matched in age and gender to the control group (CG). Spirometry, 5-repetition sit-to-stand test (5STS-test), modified shuttle walk test (MSWT), and Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQL) were performed. The reproducibility of 5STS-test and MSWT was evaluated: Results: 48 volunteers of SCAG and 48 of CG were evaluated. Pulmonary function of SCAG (FVC: 92 ± 15% pred.; FEV 1 /FVC: 84 ± 8% pred.) was worse than the CG (104 ± 15% pred.; FEV 1 /FVC: 90 ± 6% pred.) p < 0.05. SCAG had worse functional capacity registered by distance walked: 576m (515-672m) and 5STS-test: 8 seconds (7.4-8.9seconds) compared to the CG who showed distance walked: 1010m (887- 1219m) and 5STS-test: 7 seconds (7.0-8.1seconds), p < 0.001. SCAG had worse quality compared to CG, p < 0.05. The reproducibility was good of MSWT (ICC 0.99 (0.98-0.99 IC-95%)) and 5STS-test (ICC 0.80 (0.69 – 0.88), p < 0.001 . Conclusion: Children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia showed worse capacity to walk or run, and to perform sit-to-stand test. Additionally, they have poor quality of life when compared with their control peers. The MSWT and 5STS-test showed reproducible to be applied in pediatric individual with SCA.
Rationale: As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, all pediatric pulmonary fellowship programs conducted virtual interviews for the first time in the Fall of 2020. This study aimed to understand the accuracy of virtual-interview derived-impressions of fellowship programs, as well as applicant preference for future fellowship interview cycles. Methods: A group of pediatric pulmonary fellows and Program Directors designed a REDCap survey. The survey was distributed to all first-year pediatric pulmonary fellows who participated in the 2020-2021 virtual interview season. Results: 23/52 (44%) of first-year pediatric pulmonary fellows completed the survey. 96% were able to form general impressions about fellowship programs during their virtual interviews. 96% reported that generally their fellowship experience matched their virtual-interview derived-impressions. 17 of 19 factors applicants use to rank programs had no statistically significant change (p > 0.05) in impression from virtual interview to fellowship experience. The two factors with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) change in impression were patient care related – volume of ‘bread and butter’ pediatric pulmonary patients and volume of tertiary care pediatric pulmonary patients. 87% prefer some form of in-person interview option in future application cycles. A tiered interview format in which applicants are first invited to a virtual interview day followed by an optional in-person second look day was the most popular preference for future interview cycles (48%). Conclusions: Virtual interviews may provide accurate representations of pediatric pulmonary fellowship programs and applicants prefer some type of in-person interview option in future application cycles.
Introduction: Acute bronchiolitis (AB) is the main cause of hospitalization in children under two years of age, with a regular seasonality, mostly due to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of bronchiolitis hospitalizations in our centre in the last twelve years, and analyse the changes in clinical characteristics, microbiology, and adverse outcomes during the SARS-CoV2 pandemic.Methods: Observational study including patients admitted for bronchiolitis between April 2010 and December 2021 in a Spanish tertiary paediatric hospital. Relevant demographic, clinical, microbiological, and adverse outcome variables were collected in an anonymized database. The pandemic period (April 2020 to December 2021) was compared to 2010-2015 seasons using appropriate statistical tests.Results: There were 2138 bronchiolitis admissions, with a mean of 195.6 per year between 2010-2019 and a 2–4-month peak between November and March. In the expected season of 2020, there was a 94.4% reduction of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, with only eleven cases admitted in the first year of the pandemic. Bronchiolitis cases increased from the summer of 2021 during a six-month long peak, reaching a total of 171 cases. Length of stay was significantly shorter during the pandemic, but no differences were found in clinical and microbiological characteristics or other adverse outcomes.Conclusions: The SARS-CoV2 pandemic has modified the seasonality of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, with a dramatic decrease in cases during the expected season of 2020-2021, and an extemporaneous summer-autumn peak in 2021 with longer duration but similar patient characteristics and risk factors.
This case illustrates another promising example of the recent advances within pediatric interventional bronchoscopy. As innovative medical therapies continue to make their way into the pediatric realm (e.g. a 1.1-mm flexible cryoprobe has been recently developed by Erbe), opportunities for novel approaches and techniques will continue to present themselves.
Objective: This systematic review aimed to systematize different designs of exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for children with asthma and explore which designs are optimal. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science Core Collection and MEDLINE were searched up until April 01, 2021, which was conducted for any relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise-based PR in childhood asthma. Language is limited to English. Network meta-analyses and standard meta-analyses were performed using STATA (version 16.0), quality analyses were performed using RevMan (version 5.3). Results: A total of 24 RCTs involving 1031 patients were included. 14 studies were endurance training, which was the most commonly used form of exercise, and 7 studies rehabilitation sites were conducted in hospitals. A network meta-analysis showed that compared with other forms of exercise, interval training significantly improved the PAQLQ (Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire), including activity scores [MD=3.02, 95% CI (1.74,4.30)], symptom scores [MD=2.68, 95% CI (2.04,3.32)], emotional scores [MD=2.47, 95% CI (0.91,4.03)], and total scores [MD=2.68, 95% CI (1.79,3.57)]. Interval training [MD=188.97, 95% CI (-59.27, 437.21)] also had a more significant effect on the 6MWT (6-minute walk test). No adverse events were found in this study. Exercise training had no significant effect on FEV 1(the forced expiratory volume at 1s to predicted value ratio) [WMD=0.59, 95% CI (-2.00, 3.19)], however, the combined of endurance training and respiratory training was found to significantly improve both FVC (the forced vital capacity to predicted value ratio) [MD=5.37, 95% CI (0.07,10.67)] and FEF25-75% (the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity ratio) [WMD=11.31, 95% CI (2.13, 20.48)]. Conclusions: Exercise-based PR is a safe and effective for childhood asthma. Interval training may be a core component of improving quality of life and exercise capacity in childhood asthma, the combination of respiratory training and endurance training has significant effects on lung function.This result should be viewed with caution, and high-quality RCTs are still needed to confirm its clinical efficacy,
Background: Observational studies suggest that asthma/wheezing improve after adenotonsillectomy (AT). However, there is a paucity of RCT specifically studying the effects of AT in asthma/wheezing. Therefore, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial, the largest RCT of AT in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to test the hypothesis that AT would result in fewer wheezing episodes. Methods: In the CHAT study, 464 children with OSA, aged 5 to 9 years, were randomized to early AT (n=226) or watchful waiting with supportive care (WWSC) (n= 227). For this post-hoc analysis children were categorized as having “any wheezing” vs. “no wheezing” at baseline and at 7 months of follow-up. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between “any wheezing” at follow-up and treatment group after controlling for several potential confounders. Results: Children in the “any wheezing” group were predominantly black, had more allergic rhinitis, eczema, second-hand smoke exposure, more siblings and siblings with asthma, lower maternal education and family income than those in the “no wheezing group”. At baseline, wheezing characteristics were similar between AT and WWSC arms. At follow-up (at 7 months of the intervention) those in the AT arm had significatively less wheezing than those in the WWSC (22.4% vs. 43.8%, p=0.00001). However, the multivariate analysis of “any wheezing” vs. “no wheezing” at follow-up showed that the treatment arm was not associated with wheezing. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that AT has not effect on wheezing at 7 months of follow-up.
This study aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of children with COVID-19 to identify predictors for pulmonary involvement. We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of pediatric COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital in Turkey between December 2020 and June 2021. A total of 126 children (70 males, 55.6%) were examined during the study period. Their mean age was 74.73 ± 81.11 months (range, 1–216 months). The most frequent COVID-19 symptoms were fever (65.9%), cough (52.4%), and shortness of breath (18.3%). Ten patients required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Sixty-nine patients (54.8%) had pneumonia. Longer duration of fever and the presence of cough were significantly associated with pulmonary involvement. In children with pneumonia, the C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and viral load were significantly higher and lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts were significantly lower than in children without pneumonia. The cutoff viral load, CRP, and procalcitonin values for predicting pulmonary involvement were 26.5 cycle threshold (Ct; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.74; sensitivity, 0.65; specificity, 0.56; area under curve [AUC]: 0.647, p = 0.005), 7.85 mg/L (95% CI, 0.56–0.75; sensitivity, 0.66; specificity, 0.64; AUC = 0.656; p = 0.003) and 0.105 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.52–0.72; sensitivity, 0.55; specificity, 0.58; AUC = 0.626; p = 0.02), respectively. High CRP, procalcitonin levels, ESR, and viral load and low lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts can predict pulmonary involvement in children with COVID-19, so better management may be provided for good prognosis.
Background: Inappropriate humidification of inspired gas during mechanical ventilation can impair lung development in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Humidification depends on multiple factors, such as the heater-humidifier device used, type of ventilation, and environmental factors. Few studies have examined inspired gas humidification in these infants, especially during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Our objective was to compare humidity during HFOV and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), in vitro and in vivo. Methods: In-vitro and in-vivo studies used the same ventilator during both HFOV and IPPV. The bench study used a neonatal test lung and 2 heater-humidifiers with their specific circuits; the in-vivo study prospectively included preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. Results: On bench testing, mean absolute (AH) and relative (RH) humidity values were significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV (RH = 79.4% ± 8.1% vs 89.0% ± 6.2%, P<0.001). Regardless of the ventilatory mode, mean relative humidity significantly differed between the 2 heater-humidifiers (89.6% ± 6.7% vs 78.7% ± 6.8%, P=0.003). The in-vivo study included 10 neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 25.7 ± 0.9 weeks and birth weight: 624.4 ± 96.1 g). Mean relative humidity during HFOV was significantly lower than during IPPV (74.6% ± 5.7% vs 83.0 ± 6.7%, P=0.004). Conclusion: Relative humidity was significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV, both in vitro and in vivo. The type of heater-humidifier also influenced humidification. More systematic measurements of humidity of inspired gas, especially during HFOV, should be considered to optimize humidification and consequently lung protection in ELBW infants.
This report entails a case of an 11-year-old Chinese boy with cystic fibrosis (CF), who bears the c.1521_1523delCTT/c.3874-4522A>G genotype, which is extremely rare in Chinese population. Notably, the deep intron mutation c.3874-4522A>G was the first time identified among Chinese patients, which was reported mainly associated with mild phenotype. It is generally considered that a mild allele sustains CFTR function in a dominant fashion, even if paired with a severe allele. However, in the present report, the c.3874-4522A>G mutation was found related to severe pulmonary diseases, including early symptom onset, progressive bronchiectasis, recurrent airway P. aeruginosa combined with MRSA, rapid decline of lung function, and poor weight gain, which suggesting severe phenotype. Despite intensive chest care and optimized therapy, the child ultimately died of cardiopulmonary failure 3 months after discharge.
Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MISC) is a phenomenon that appeared in children infected with or exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The typical onset of MISC is 4-6 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection and is formulated to be due to an immune response. Methods: Our study retrospectively analyzed data from a tertiary center in UAE of MISC patients who were admitted to either general pediatric wards or pediatric intensive care (PICU) or who came exclusively for follow-up (post PICU admission) from May 2020 to August 2021. Results: The total sample size is 50 patients and the study included a comparison of PICU admissions with none PICU admissions. The PICU sample size was 18 patients, 50% females, with mean age of 8.3 years all were previously healthy. PICU patients had deranged blood counts with a lower hemoglobin count, a more pronounced lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia along with hypoalbuminemia. PICU patients presented with relatively higher inflammatory markers: CRP, PCT, ferritin and D-dimer. Immunological studies were significantly higher for IL-6 levels in PICU patients. On echocardiography, higher myocardial dysfunction was more notable in patients admitted to PICU. Children admitted in PICU were provided with more extensive therapy. As part of our study course, we re-evaluated our PICU patients twice, once at 48 hours post PICU admission and again 4-6 weeks after discharge from the hospital. No deaths have been recorded in the cohort. Conclusion: This study evaluated risk factors of MISC and potential severity features. Follow up of patients on discharge showed improvement across all domains.
We describe a case of unilateral phrenic nerve palsy due to SARS-COV-2 in a young child, which led to prolonged and complicated ventilation. The child was treated with methylprednisolone and IVIG, which led to a complete recovery of phrenic function. Temporary involvement of the phrenic nerve should be considered in children infected with SARS-COV-2 requiring prolonged ventilation. The phrenic nerve palsy is postulated to be due to peripheral nerve involvement by SARS-CoV-2. In South Africa, children under 12 years of age are not prioritized for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. This case re-iterates that even though SARS-CoV-2 disease is mild in the vast majority of children there are more severe presentations which, in low- or middle-income countries, might even go unrecognized.