In response to: Spurr R, Ng E, Onchiri FM, Rapha B, Nakatumba-Nabende J, Rosenfeld M, Najjingo I, Stout J, Nantanda R, Ellington LE. Performance and usability of a new mobile application for measuring respiratory rate in young children with acute lower respiratory infections. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2022 Aug 22. doi: 10.1002/ppul.26125.
Background: Whether Lung ultrasound (LUS) can be used for pathogenic diagnosis is still controversial. This was conducted to test the accuracy and reliability of ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia and to clarify whether ultrasound has diagnostic value for the etiology. Methods: A total of 135 neonatal pneumonia patients with an identified pathogen and 50 newborns with normal lungs in the newborn intensive care unit of 10 tertiary hospitals in China were enrolled. The study ran from November 2020 to December 2021. The infants were divided into various groups according to pathogens, the time of infection, the gestational age, the severity of the disease. The distribution of pleural line abnormalities, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation, as well as the incidence of air bronchogram and pleural effusion based on LUS, were compared between the above groups and between the pneumonia and healthy control groups. Results: There were significant differences in pulmonary consolidation. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of severe pneumonia based on the extent of pulmonary consolidation were 83.3% and 85.2%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the identification of mild or severe pneumonia based on the distribution of pulmonary consolidation was 0.776. Conclusion: Lung ultrasound has good performance in differentiating the severity of neonatal pneumonia, but cannot be used for pathogenic diagnosis.
Introduction: E-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) results from inhaling the aerosol of e-cigarettes and has similar clinical features to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). EVALI case counts since the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic is unknown. Methods: A retrospective electronic health record chart review of adolescents hospitalized at one institution with EVALI was conducted. Clinical characteristics and hospital course of patients hospitalized during the pandemic were compared to those pre-pandemic. Results: The clinical presentation of adolescents hospitalized prior-to (n=19) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (n=22) were similar with respect to constitutional, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms. All patients hospitalized during the pandemic were tested for COVID-19 at least once. Only one patient had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test result. 31 out of 39 patients treated with corticosteroids had clinical improvement within 24 hours (79%). Patients hospitalized during the pandemic had a shorter median length of stay (5 vs 7 days, p<0.01), and were less often discharged with home oxygen (1 vs 6 patients, p=0.04). Pulmonary function tests improved pre-to post-corticosteroid treatment and post-corticosteroid to follow-up. Conclusions: Eliciting a history of vaping in adolescents presenting with constitutional, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms is important to identify EVALI cases, which have continued throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. A shorter length of stay with less need for mechanical ventilation and home oxygen in adolescents hospitalized during the pandemic may reflect increased familiarity with EVALI characteristics. Corticosteroids led to clinical and pulmonary function improvement.
Background: Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) are often prescribed diuretics before the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. It is unknown whether outpatient medication weaning strategies affect duration of home oxygen therapy. Methods: This was a secondary cohort analysis of infants born <32 weeks gestational age with BPD from 2015-2018 discharged from our NICU or regional NICUs, referred to our pulmonary clinic for home oxygen management. We compared three groups: those discharged with no diuretics, diuretics actively weaned (dose decreased) and diuretics passively weaned (dose not adjusted). Results: Out of 125 infants, 116 were included in the analysis. Forty-five infants were discharged without diuretics; 52 infants were discharged with diuretics that were actively weaned; 19 infants were discharged with diuretics that were passively weaned. Infants who were passively weaned spent the most time on home oxygen (median 28 weeks, IQR 16-52; p=0.011); there were no differences in home oxygen duration in infants actively weaned (median 13 weeks, IQR 10-26) versus not on diuretics (median 22 weeks, IQR 12-30, p=0.285). Multivariable adjustment for other illness characteristics associated with duration of home oxygen did not change this finding. Conclusions: Active weaning of diuretics did not prolong duration of home oxygen, in the setting of a standardized clinical guideline for weaning home oxygen in infants with BPD. These data can serve as baseline information to implement and test standardized strategies for outpatient medication management.
Background and aims: We aimed to analyze the correlation of urinary with serum NT-proBNP concentrations in acute bronchiolitis and its association with the severity of the disease. Material and Methods: A pilot observational study conducted between 1st October and 31st March 2022, including acute bronchiolitis cases who attended our institution. Serum and urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using the Alere NT-proBNP assay in time-matched urine and blood samples. We explored the linear relationship between both concentrations and compared clinical outcomes indicative of severe acute bronchiolitis between groups of raised and normal urinary NT-proBNP. Results: 17 infants (median age 68 (36-91) days) with 36 time-matched samples were included. The urinary and serum concentrations of NT-proBNP were significantly correlated with (r=0.867 & R-squared coefficient=0.751; p<0.001). The log-10-transformed urinary NT-proBNP concentrations were higher at the time of hospital admission in those infants that required PICU admission with ventilatory support compared with those without this outcome (1.85 (1.16-2.44) pg/mg vs 0.63 (0.45-0.84) pg/mg); p<0.001); and resulted positively and strongly correlated with the duration of the ventilatory support (rho=0.76; p<0.001) and the LOS hospitalization (rho=0.84; p<0.001) Conclusion: The measurement of urinary NT-proBNP concentrations could be a reliable surrogate for serum NT-proBNP levels highlighting the potential value of the urinary NT-proBNP as a non-invasive tool to assess severity in acute bronchiolitis.
Rationale: As a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, all pediatric pulmonary fellowship programs conducted virtual interviews for the first time in the Fall of 2020. This study aimed to understand the accuracy of virtual-interview derived-impressions of fellowship programs, as well as applicant preference for future fellowship interview cycles. Methods: A group of pediatric pulmonary fellows and Program Directors designed a REDCap survey. The survey was distributed to all first-year pediatric pulmonary fellows who participated in the 2020-2021 virtual interview season. Results: 23/52 (44%) of first-year pediatric pulmonary fellows completed the survey. 96% were able to form general impressions about fellowship programs during their virtual interviews. 96% reported that generally their fellowship experience matched their virtual-interview derived-impressions. 17 of 19 factors applicants use to rank programs had no statistically significant change (p > 0.05) in impression from virtual interview to fellowship experience. The two factors with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) change in impression were patient care related – volume of ‘bread and butter’ pediatric pulmonary patients and volume of tertiary care pediatric pulmonary patients. 87% prefer some form of in-person interview option in future application cycles. A tiered interview format in which applicants are first invited to a virtual interview day followed by an optional in-person second look day was the most popular preference for future interview cycles (48%). Conclusions: Virtual interviews may provide accurate representations of pediatric pulmonary fellowship programs and applicants prefer some type of in-person interview option in future application cycles.
This case illustrates another promising example of the recent advances within pediatric interventional bronchoscopy. As innovative medical therapies continue to make their way into the pediatric realm (e.g. a 1.1-mm flexible cryoprobe has been recently developed by Erbe), opportunities for novel approaches and techniques will continue to present themselves.
This study aimed to investigate epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of children with COVID-19 to identify predictors for pulmonary involvement. We conducted a retrospective, single-center study of pediatric COVID-19 at a tertiary care hospital in Turkey between December 2020 and June 2021. A total of 126 children (70 males, 55.6%) were examined during the study period. Their mean age was 74.73 ± 81.11 months (range, 1–216 months). The most frequent COVID-19 symptoms were fever (65.9%), cough (52.4%), and shortness of breath (18.3%). Ten patients required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Sixty-nine patients (54.8%) had pneumonia. Longer duration of fever and the presence of cough were significantly associated with pulmonary involvement. In children with pneumonia, the C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and viral load were significantly higher and lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts were significantly lower than in children without pneumonia. The cutoff viral load, CRP, and procalcitonin values for predicting pulmonary involvement were 26.5 cycle threshold (Ct; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.74; sensitivity, 0.65; specificity, 0.56; area under curve [AUC]: 0.647, p = 0.005), 7.85 mg/L (95% CI, 0.56–0.75; sensitivity, 0.66; specificity, 0.64; AUC = 0.656; p = 0.003) and 0.105 ng/mL (95% CI, 0.52–0.72; sensitivity, 0.55; specificity, 0.58; AUC = 0.626; p = 0.02), respectively. High CRP, procalcitonin levels, ESR, and viral load and low lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts can predict pulmonary involvement in children with COVID-19, so better management may be provided for good prognosis.
Background: Inappropriate humidification of inspired gas during mechanical ventilation can impair lung development in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. Humidification depends on multiple factors, such as the heater-humidifier device used, type of ventilation, and environmental factors. Few studies have examined inspired gas humidification in these infants, especially during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Our objective was to compare humidity during HFOV and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV), in vitro and in vivo. Methods: In-vitro and in-vivo studies used the same ventilator during both HFOV and IPPV. The bench study used a neonatal test lung and 2 heater-humidifiers with their specific circuits; the in-vivo study prospectively included preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. Results: On bench testing, mean absolute (AH) and relative (RH) humidity values were significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV (RH = 79.4% ± 8.1% vs 89.0% ± 6.2%, P<0.001). Regardless of the ventilatory mode, mean relative humidity significantly differed between the 2 heater-humidifiers (89.6% ± 6.7% vs 78.7% ± 6.8%, P=0.003). The in-vivo study included 10 neonates (mean ± SD gestational age: 25.7 ± 0.9 weeks and birth weight: 624.4 ± 96.1 g). Mean relative humidity during HFOV was significantly lower than during IPPV (74.6% ± 5.7% vs 83.0 ± 6.7%, P=0.004). Conclusion: Relative humidity was significantly lower during HFOV than IPPV, both in vitro and in vivo. The type of heater-humidifier also influenced humidification. More systematic measurements of humidity of inspired gas, especially during HFOV, should be considered to optimize humidification and consequently lung protection in ELBW infants.
To the editor: We present a 13-year-old boy with mild persistent asthma and obstructive sleep apnea who initially presented with fever, dyspnea, cough, night sweats and myalgia for 4 days. He reported having an intermittent “hacking cough” for years. Physical examination was significant for diffuse crackles in the right lung base, decreased breath sounds and mild digital clubbing. Initial chest x-ray (CXR) revealed right middle lobe (RML) and right lower lobe (RLL) opacities with right pleural effusion interpreted and treated as community acquired pneumonia. He was followed as an outpatient by his pediatrician and referred to our pediatric pulmonology clinic months later for persistent RLL atelectasis and chronic cough. He was well appearing with similar physical examination findings as described earlier. Laboratory tests including sweat chloride, cystic fibrosis genetic panel, immunoglobulin levels, complement, pneumococcal and tetanus titers were normal.
CorrespondenceTitle: An oversight regarding the Club cell?To the Editor,I was surprised to a see a title including the outdated term “Clara Cell” protein, in reference to CC16, in the title and body of the article by Rallis et al recently published in Pediatric Pulmonology (1). It appears that there needs to be an ongoing reminder that due to the association of Dr. Max Clara with the Third Reich and his unethical medical research practices which lead to the identification of this cell type (2-4) that his name was removed in 2013.In 2012, Editorial boards of American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society and the American College of Chest Physicians, based on recommendations from an expert panel assembled by the Forum of International Respiratory Societies, agreed to convert to use of the terms “club cell (Clara)” and “club cell secretory protein (Clara), and after January 1, 2013, completely transitioning out the use of the (Clara) eponym.In our day, where cancel culture is so predominant, questions have been raised about what lessons are lost when history is erased. Assuming an oversight was made by the authors, editors and reviewers in not utilizing the now accepted terms “Club cell secretory protein” or bronchiolar exocrine cells, it would only be acceptable to mention the prior term in the setting of an asterisked description explaining the context and involvement of concentration camp prisoners and their association with the prior eponym, for educational purposes.Rallis D, Baltogianni M, Dermitzaki N, Balomenou F, Papastergiou E, Maragoudaki E, Tsabouri S, Makis A, Giapros V. Clara cell protein expression amongst infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2022 Mar 18.Woywodt A, Lefrak S, Matteson E. Tainted eponyms in medicine: the ”Clara” cell joins the list. Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):706-8Winkelmann A, Noack T. The Clara cell: a ”Third Reich eponym”? Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):722-7.Irwin RS, Augustyn N, French CT, Rice J, Tedeschi V, Welch SJ; Editorial Leadership Team. Spread the word about the journal in 2013: from citation manipulation to invalidation of patient-reported outcomes measures to renaming the Clara cell to new journal features. Chest. 2013 Jan;143(1):1-4.
Foreign body aspiration is rare in children below 6 months of age. Very young children presenting with stridor, atypical croup presentation, and not responding accordingly, subglottic foreign body aspiration should be considered. These may not always be visible with bedside flexible endoscopy and may need investigation under anesthesia. We report 2 cases of devil's thorn aspiration in young infants. These children were left on the floor to play and devils thorn may be a danger lurking as the they have been deposited unknowingly by the shoes people wear and pick up by these young infants.
The literature has identified continued needs for children with cystic fibrosis. The profession of occupational therapy is uniquely equipped and trained to address a variety of needs that children with cystic fibrosis experience during daily life engagement, potentially filling this gap in services. Despite this, occupational therapists are rarely consulted or included in patient care plans. It is the goal of this letter that professionals working in the field of cystic fibrosis will gain an understanding and appreciation for the profession of occupational therapy when considering care plans for their patients.
Background: Heterozygote carriers of potentially pathogenic variants in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR) gene have increased asthma risk. However, the frequency and impact of CFTR variation among individuals with asthma is unknown. Objective: To determine whether potentially pathogenic CFTR variants associate with disease severity and whether individuals with two potentially pathogenic variants exist in a severe asthma-enriched cohort . Methods: We analyzed sequencing data spanning a 190.5Kb region of CFTR in participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP1-3). Potentially pathogenic, rare CFTR variants (frequency<0.05) were classified as CF-causing or of varying clinical consequences (VVCC) (CFTR2.org). Regression-based models tested for association between CFTR genotypes (0-2 potentially pathogenic variants) and severity outcomes. Results: Of 1401 participants, 9.5% (134) had one potentially pathogenic variant, occurring more frequently in non-Hispanic white (NHW, 10.1% [84 of 831]) compared to African American individuals (AA, 5.2% [22 of 426]). We found ≥2 potentially pathogenic CFTR variants in 1.4% (19); 0.5% (4) of NHW and 2.8% (12) of AA. Potentially pathogenic CFTR variant genotypes (≥1 or ≥2 variants) were not cumulatively associated with lung function or exacerbations. In NHW, we found three F508del compound heterozygotes with F508del and a VVCC (two 5T;TG12[c.1210-11T>G] and one Arg1070Trp) and a homozygote for the VVCC, 5T;TG12. Conclusions: We found potentially pathogenic CFTR variants within a severe asthma-enriched cohort , including three compound heterozygote genotypes variably associated with CF in NHW individuals. These findings provide the rationale for CFTR sequencing and phenotyping of CF-related traits in individuals with severe asthma.
This study investigated whether Elexacaftor-Tezacaftor-Ivacaftor (Kaftrio ®), a cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator, could improve exercise capacity in adolescents with CF. After six weeks treatment, Kaftrio ® improved both maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness. Improvements were independent of changes in ventilatory function during exercise and physical activity. Interestingly, pulmonary oxygen uptake per unit of power output was higher in two, out of three, cases who presented with more severe CF lung disease. These findings suggest improved O 2 extraction and/or consumption in the exercising muscle and demonstrate, for the first time, that short-term treatment with Kaftrio ® might improve aerobic fitness in people with CF, especially in those with more severe lung disease and deconditioning.
Pleural drainage was differently performed in two similar neighboring hospitals (32.0 % vs. 58.2 %, p < 0.001), but the length of stay was shorter in the hospital using a more conservative approach (median 12 days vs. 18 days, p < 0.001). This result seemed unrelated to severity but associated with the shorter duration of intravenous treatment. This study adds to previous reports suggesting that pleural drainage is unnecessary in many cases; controlled studies are needed to determine which patients may actually benefit from its use.