The objective of the study was to simulate New Zealand’s foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) operational plan to determine personnel requirements for a FMD response and understand how the numbers of frontline staff available could affect the size and duration of FMD outbreaks, when using stamping-out (SO) measures with or without vaccination. The model utilized a national dataset of all known livestock farms. Each simulation randomly seeded infection into a single farm. Transmission mechanisms included direct and indirect contacts, local and airborne spread. Prior to each simulation, the numbers of personnel for front-line tasks were set randomly. In a random subset of simulations, vaccination was allowed to be deployed as an adjunct to SO. Front-line tasks included contact tracing, surveillance of at-risk farms, depopulation and vaccination using teams comprising personnel of the different types required by New Zealand’s operational plans. The effect of personnel numbers on the size and duration of epidemics were explored using machine learning methods. In the second stage of the study, using a subset of iterations where numbers of personnel were unconstrained, the number of personnel used each day were quantified. When personnel resources were unconstrained, the 95 th percentile and maximum number of infected places (IPs) were 78 and 462 respectively, and the 95 th percentile and maximum duration were 69 and 217 days respectively. However, severe constraints on personnel resources allowed some outbreaks to exceed the size of the UK 2001 FMD epidemic which had 2026 IPs. The number of veterinarians available had a major influence on the size and duration of outbreaks, while the availability of other personnel types did not. A shortage of veterinarians was associated with an increase in time to detect and depopulate IPs, allowing for continued transmission. Emergency vaccination placed a short-term demand for additional staff at the start of the vaccination programme, but the overall number of person days used were similar to SO-only strategies. This study determined the optimal numbers of front-line personnel required to implement the current operational plans to support an FMD response in New Zealand. A shortage of veterinarians was identified as the most influential factor to impact disease control outcomes. Emergency vaccination led to earlier control of an FMD outbreak, but also resulted in a short-term spike in demand for personnel. A successful response needs to have access to sufficient personnel, particularly veterinarians, trained in response roles and available at short notice.
Ovine papillomavirus (OaPV) comprises four genotypes; OaPV1, OaPV2, and OaPV4 are fibropapillomaviruses within the genus Delta-papillomavirus ( Delta-PV ), whereas OaPV3 is an epitheliotropic virus that belongs to the genus Dyokappa-papillomavirus ( Dyokappa-PV ). To date, all of them have been known to infect sheep only. OaPV1, OaPV2, and OaPV4 have been associated with ovine cutaneous and mucosal fibropapillomas, while OaPV3 is a key factor in the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) pathway of the sheep skin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained from 128 cattle at public slaughterhouses were investigated using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). ddPCR is a new-generation PCR technique that enables accurate and absolute quantification of target molecules with high sensitivity and specificity. All OaPVs were detected by identification and quantification of nucleic acids using specific fluorescent probes. Of 128 PBMC samples, 100 (~78%) showed OaPV infections. Further, 42, 35, and 23 PBMC samples showed single, double, and triple OaPV infections, respectively. OaPV1 was responsible for 22 single infections, OaPV2 caused 16 single infections, and OaPV3 and OaPV4 caused two single infections each. OaPV1 and OaPV2 were the most frequent ovine viruses in dual and triple infections. In many PBMC samples, both ovine Delta-PV and Dyokappa-PV were found to be transcriptionally active, as shown by the detection and quantification of E5 oncogene transcripts for OaPV1, L1 transcripts for OaPV2, E6 and E7 transcripts for OaPV3, and E6 for OaPV4. OaPVs were found in the blood samples from cattle that shared grasslands rich in bracken ferns known to contain immunosuppressant substances. Furthermore, OaPVs were also found in cattle from intensive livestock farming without any contact with sheep. Because OaPV DNA was detected in both grass hay and corn silage, it is conceivable that these feed may be the viral sources.
African swine fever (ASF) is a high-consequence transboundary disease of domestic and wild swine often characterized by high case mortality rates. On July 29, 2021, the Dominican Republic announced the African swine fever virus (ASFV) had been detected in samples collected in early- to mid-July 2021. Retrospective testing of samples collected as part of a collaborative surveillance project between the United States and the Dominican Republic identified ASFV in samples collected as early as May 13, 2021. These detections represent a new outbreak of ASF in the Dominican Republic, which had been declared free of the disease since 1981. Overall, 73 whole genomes of ASFV were sequenced from clinical samples received during the outbreak across 18 provinces. The genomic sequence data have been deposited in public databases to support and expand global data sharing on this impactful disease. While the sequences show a high degree of nucleotide identity to publicly available ASFV genomes from Europe and Asia, they are genetically distant from genomes in the public repositories by at least 8 previously undescribed single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Sarcoptic mange, a disease caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is globally endemic and an emerging threat to wildlife. Although many studies have shown that wildlife diseases play key roles in biodiversity conservation, knowledge about sarcoptic mange is still insufficient. In this study, we aim to improve the understanding of the impacts of sarcoptic mange on wildlife populations, the mechanisms involved in its ecoepidemiology, and the associated risks to public and ecosystem health by investigating mass death events in gorals and serows in the Qinling Mountains. We conducted interviews with practitioners and local people in the central Qinling Mountains. From the same locations, we collected 24 cutaneous samples from various animals and surveillance data from infrared cameras. Pathological, parasitological and microbiological examinations of the samples were performed. Mite-induced cutaneous lesions, mites and eggs were observed in samples from dead gorals and one dead serow, but not in other species. Molecular analysis confirmed the mites to be S. scabiei that originated from rabbits. The data obtained from the interviews and infrared cameras indicated that the death of wildlife was related to sarcoptic mange infection and that there had been a decrease in the goral population since the outbreak of the disease. We confirmed that sarcoptic mange was the major cause of the mass death events and may have spread from the western to eastern Qinling Mountains. Based on our findings, we propose several protection strategies to help preserve biodiversity in the Qinling Mountains.
Global emergence and re-emergence of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an Alphacoronavirus which causes a highly contagious enteric disease, have led to several studies addressing its variability. The aim of this study was to characterize the infection of weaned pigs with Swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV) -a chimeric virus most likely originated from a recombination event between PEDV and Transmissible gastroenteritis virus, or its mutant Porcine respiratory coronavirus-, and two PEDV G1b variants, including a recently described recombinant PEDV-SeCoV (rPEDV-SeCoV), as well as to determine the degree of cross-protection achieved against the rPEDV-SeCoV. For this purpose, forty-eight 4-week-old weaned pigs were randomly allocated into four groups of 12 animals; piglets in groups B, C and D were orally inoculated with a PEDV variant (B and D) or SeCoV (C), while piglets in group A were mock inoculated and maintained as controls. At day 20 post-infection all groups were exposed to rPEDV-SeCoV; thus, group D was subjected to a homologous re-challenge, groups B and C to a heterologous re-challenge (PEDV/rPEDV-SeCoV and SeCoV/rPEDV-SeCoV, respectively) and group A was primary challenged (-/rPEDV-SeCoV). Clinical signs, viral shedding, microscopic lesions and specific humoral and cellular immune responses (IgG, IgA, neutralizing antibodies and IgA and IFN-γ-secreting cells) were monitored. After primo-infection all three viral strains induced an undistinguishable mild-to-moderate clinical disease with diarrhea as the main sign and villus shortening lesions in the small intestine. In homologous re-challenged pigs, no clinical signs or lesions were observed, and viral shedding was only detected in a single animal. This fact may be explained by the significant high level of rPEDV-SeCoV-specific neutralizing antibodies found in these pigs before the challenge. In contrast, prior exposition to a different PEDV G1b variant or SeCoV only provided partial cross-protection, allowing rPEDV-SeCoV replication and shedding in feces.
The analysis of domestic pig movements have became useful in the understanding of disease spread patterns and epidemiology, which facilitates the development of more effective animal diseases control strategies. The aim of this work was to analyse the static and spatial characteristics of the pig network, to identify its trading communities and to analyse the contribution of the network to the transmission of classical swine fever. Pig movement data were extracted from the national veterinary service database (2017-2019), using social network analysis and spatial analysis we constructed a network with registered premises as nodes and their movements as edges, and also a network of parishes as its nodes aggregating their premises movements as edges. The annual network metrics showed in average a diameter of 20.33, a number of neighbours of 2.61, a shortest path length of 4.39 and a clustering coefficient of 0.38 (small-world structure). The most frequent movements were to or from markets (57%). Backyard producers made up 89% of the network premises, and the top 2% of parishes (highest degree) contributed to 50% of the movements. The highest frequencies of movements between parishes were in the centre of the country, while the highest frequency of movements to abattoirs was in the south-west. Finally, the pattern of CSF disease outbreaks within the Ecuador network was likely the result of network transmission processes. In conclusion, our results represent the first exploratory analysis of domestic pig movements at premise and parish levels. These results could be taken into account by the surveillance system to improve its procedures and update the disease control and management policy, allowing the implementation of targeted or risk-based surveillance.
Infections with Tuberculosis (TB)-causing agents of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex threaten human, livestock, and wildlife health globally due to the high capacity to cross trans-species boundaries. Tuberculosis is a cryptic disease characterized by prolonged, sometimes lifelong subclinical infections, complicating disease monitoring. Consequently, our understanding of infection risk, disease progression, and mortality across species affected by TB remains limited. The TB agent Mycobacterium suricattae was first recorded in the late 1990s in a wild population of meerkats inhabiting the Kalahari in South Africa and has since spread considerably, becoming a common cause of meerkat mortality. This offers an opportunity to document the epidemiology of naturally spreading TB in a wild population. Here, we synthesize more than 25 years-worth of TB reporting and social interaction data across 3,420 individuals to track disease spread, and quantify rates of TB social exposure, progression, and mortality. We found that most meerkats had been exposed to the pathogen within eight years of first detection in the study area, with exposure reaching up to 95% of the population. Approximately one quarter of exposed individuals progressed to clinical TB stages, followed by physical deterioration and death within a few months. Since emergence, 11.6% of deaths were attributed to TB, although the true toll of TB-related mortality is likely higher. Lastly, we observed marked variation in disease progression among individuals, suggesting inter-individual differences in both TB susceptibility and resistance. Our results highlight that TB prevalence and mortality could be higher than previously reported, particularly in species or populations with complex social group dynamics. Long-term studies, such as the present one, allow us to assess temporal variation in disease prevalence and progression and quantify exposure, which is rarely measured in wildlife. Long-term studies are highly valuable tools to explore disease emergence and ecology, and study host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics in general, and its impact on social mammals.
The last influenza pandemic in 2009 emerged from swine and surveillance of swine influenza is important for pandemic preparedness. Movement of swine during husbandry, trade or marketing for slaughter provide opportunities for transfer and possible genetic reassortment of swine influenza viruses. Over 90% of the swine slaughtered at the central swine abattoir in Hong Kong are imported from farms located in multiple provinces in mainland China. There is opportunity for virus cross-infection during this transport and slaughter process. Of the 26,980 swabs collected in the slaughterhouse in Hong Kong from 5 th January 2012 to 15 th December 2016, we analyzed sequence data on influenza A (H3N2) virus isolates (n = 174) in conjunction with date of sampling and originating farm. Molecular epidemiology provided evidence of virus cross-infection between swine originating from different farms during transport and also evidence of a virus lineage persisting in a swine farm for over 2 years. We used virus serology and isolation data from 4,226 paired pig serum and nasal swabs collected from swine originating from Guangdong Province to compare the force of infection (FOI) during transport and within farms. The mean weekly FOI during transport was λ t = 0.0286 (95% CI = 0.0211-0.0391) while the weekly FOI in farms was λ f = 0.0089 (95% CI = 0.0084-0.0095), assuming a duration of stay in farm of 28 weeks, suggesting increased force of infection during the transport process. Potential risk factors for infection including the duration in transport, length of stay at slaughterhouse and farm-level seroprevalence were also assessed by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Transport may increase virus cross-infection rates and provide opportunities for virus reassortment potentially increasing zoonotic risk to those involved in the transportation and slaughtering processes.
Despite the recognized role of wild waterfowl in the potential dispersal and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, little is known about how infection affects these birds. This lack of information limits our ability to estimate viral spread in the event of an HPAI outbreak, thereby limiting our abilities to estimate and communicate risk. Here we present telemetry data from a wild Lesser Scaup ( Aythya affinis), captured during a separate ecology study in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. This bird tested positive for infection with clade 126.96.36.199 HPAI virus of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) H5N1 lineage (results received post-release) during the 2021-22 ongoing outbreaks in North America. While the infected bird was somewhat lighter than other adult males surgically implanted with transmitters (790g, mean=868g, n=11), it showed no clinical signs of infection at capture, during surgery, nor upon release. The bird died 3d later, pathology undetermined as the specimen was not able to be recovered. Analysis of movement data within the 3d window showed that the infected individual’s maximum and average hourly movements (3894.3m, 428.8m respectively) were noticeably lower than noninfected conspecifics tagged and released the same day (mean =21594.5m, mean =1097.9m, respectively; n=4). We identified four instances where the infected bird had direct contact (fixes located within 25m and 15 min) with another marked bird during this time. Collectively, these data suggest that the HPAI positive bird observed in this study may have been shedding virus for some period prior to death, with opportunities for direct bird to bird or environmental transmission. Although limited by low sample size and proximity to the time of tagging, we hope that these data will provide useful information as managers continue to respond to this ongoing outbreak event.
Wild boar is the main sylvatic reservoir of the genotype 3 of hepatitis E virus (HEV). The occurrence of HEV-3 human cases has been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pig and wild boar meat and liver. The zoonotic transmission of HEV-3 has been confirmed by sequencing identical or strictly related viral strains in humans, wild boar, and derived food. The HEV sequences classified within the HEV-3 genotype are highly variable, and although only one serotype has been identified so far, the observed differences allow for the further classification of the HEV-3 genotype into subtypes, named in alphabetical order. Compared to human and pig strains, an even higher heterogeneity is observed among strains infecting wild boar. In the present study, the genetic variability of eight HEV-3 strains detected in wild boars living in a small geographical area in central Italy (Lazio and Umbria regions) was investigated by full genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The strains were classified within the HEV-3a, HEV-3c, HEV-3f subtypes and within two new recently proposed subtypes. Results demonstrate – despite the relatively small geographic area of origin – an unexpected divergence within HEV-3 strains hosted by the investigated wild boar population and highlights the need for extensive sequencing of HEV in reservoirs to fully understand diversity, geographical distribution and evolution of this group of viruses.
Schistosomiasis is a tropical neglected disease commonly associated with rural areas; however, urban schistosomiasis has been reported world-wide, and increasing urbanization is one of the most important demographic shifts of the 20 th and now 21 st centuries. The pattern of urbanization is not uniform so that within the same city the rates and sources of population increase vary. Here we report on the parasite composition in one neighborhood in the metropolitan area of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Using epidemiological data and population genetics we find evidence for local transmission and maintenance of Schistosoma mansoni infection within an urban population and little contribution from rural-urban migration. Our findings provide direction for local mitigation strategies and to assist the public living in this neighborhood to interrupt the local transmission cycle.
Summary: The unusual genetic diversity of the Omicron strain has led to speculation about its origin. The mathematical modeling platform developed for the Stockholm Paradigm (SP) indicates strongly that it has retro-colonized humans from an unidentified animal reservoir originally infected by humans. The relationship between Omicron and all other SARS-CoV-2 variants indicates oscillations among hosts, a core part of the SP. Such oscillations result from the emergence of novel variants following colonization of new hosts, replenishing and expanding the risk space for disease emergence. The SP predicts that pathogens colonize new hosts using pre-existing capacities. Those events are thus predictable to a certain extent. Novel variants emerge after a colonization and are not predictable. This makes it imperative to take proactive measures for anticipating emerging infectious diseases (EID) and mitigating their impact. The SP suggests a policy protocol to accomplish this goal. This is the DAMA Protocol: comprising DOCUMENT to detect pathogens before they emerge in new places or colonize new hosts; ASSESS to determine risk; MONITOR to detect changes in pathogen populations that increase the risk of outbreaks; and ACT to prevent outbreaks when possible and minimize their impact when they occur.
In this study, we investigated the occurrence of direct and indirect infectious disease transmission pathways among pig farms in Switzerland, as well as their specific relevance for the spread of African swine fever, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), and enzootic pneumonia. Data were collected using an adapted mental models approach, involving initial interviews with experts in the field of pig health and logistics, semi-structured interviews with pig farmers, and a final expert workshop, during which all identified pathways were graded by their predicted frequency of occurrence, their likelihood of spread of the three diseases of interest, and their overall relevance considering both parameters. As many as 24 disease pathways were identified in four areas: pig trade, farmer encounters, external collaborators, and environmental or other pathways. Two thirds of the pathways were expected to occur with moderate-to-high frequency. While both direct and indirect pig trade transmission routes were highly relevant for the spread of the three pathogens, pathways from the remaining areas were especially important for PRRS due to higher spread potential via aerosols and fomites. In addition, we identified factors modifying the relevance of disease pathways, such as farm production type and affiliation with trader companies. During the interviews, we found varying levels of risk perception among farmers concerning some of the pathways, which affected adherence to biosecurity measures and were often linked to the degree of trust that farmers had towards their colleagues and external collaborators. Our findings highlight the importance of integrating indirect disease pathways into existing surveillance and control strategies and in disease modelling efforts. We also propose that biosecurity training aimed at professionals and risk communication campaigns targeting farmers should be considered to mitigate the risk of disease spread through the identified pathways.
Livestock trading through live animal markets are potential pathways for the introduction and spread of economically important pathogens like the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to new areas in several countries. Due to the high demand for live pigs in Nigeria both for restocking and slaughter, live pigs are sold at designated live pig markets (LPM) in the country. This involves movement of pigs over long distances. Despite, reports of ASF outbreaks following restocking of pigs bought from LPMs, there is paucity of information on the role of LPMs in the epidemiology of ASF. In this study, data and pig samples (whole blood, sera, tissue) were collected from 4 selected LPMs in Nigeria (Dawaki, Katsit, Numan & Pandam) between 2019 and 2020. Samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Four genes of ASFV positive samples were characterized to identify the circulating genotypes. Results revealed trade activities involving transportation of pigs from these selected markets to 42 major cities and towns in thirteen (13) States of Nigeria. PCR results revealed an overall ASF prevalence of 10.77% (66/613). ASFV was confirmed by PCR in all the selected LPMs with a prevalence rate of 3.13%-23.81%. The phylogeny revealed genotype I and serogroup 4 based on the p72 protein that encodes the B646L gene and the EP402R gene encoding the CD2V. While sequence analysis of CVR of B602L gene revealed 8 tetrameric repeats variants, six of which have never been reported in Nigeria. Analysis of sera samples recorded a seroprevalence of 6.9% (16/217) within the study period. Findings from this study show that LPM are hotspots and channels for transmission and continuous spread of ASFV in Nigeria. Therefore, for ASF to be controlled in Nigeria, disease surveillance and regulation at LPMs are critical.
The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, which is unexpectedly associated with congenital defects, has prompted the development of safe and effective vaccines. The gram-positive enhancer matrix-protein anchor (GEM-PA) display system has emerged as a versatile and highly effective platform for delivering target proteins for vaccines. In this article, we developed a bacterium-like particle vaccine ZI-△-PA-GEM based on the GEM-PA system. The fusion protein ZI-△-PA, which contains the prM-E-△ protein of ZIKV (with a stem-transmembrane region deletion) and the protein anchor PA3, was expressed. The fusion protein was successfully displayed on the GEM surface, forming ZI-△-PA-GEM. Moreover, when BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with ZI-△-PA-GEM combined with 201 VG and poly(I:C) adjuvants, durable ZIKV-specific IgG and protective neutralizing antibody responses were induced. Potent B cell/DC activation was also be stimulated early after immunization. Remarkably, splenocyte proliferation, the secretion of multiple cytokines, T/B cell activation and central memory T cell responses were elicited. These data indicate that ZI-△-PA-GEM is a promising bacterium-like particle vaccine candidate for ZIKV.
Flaviviruses West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV) and Bagaza (BAGV) virus and avian malaria parasites are vector borne pathogens that circulate naturally between avian and mosquito hosts. WNV and USUV and potentially also BAGV constitute zoonoses. Temporal and spatial co-circulation and co-infection with Plasmodium spp., and West Nile virus has been documented in birds and mosquito vectors, and fatally USUV infected passerines coinfected with Plasmodium spp. had more severe lesions. Also, WNV, USUV and BAGV have been found to co-circulate. Yet little is known about the interaction of BAGV and malaria parasites during consecutive or co-infections of avian hosts. Here we report mortality of free-living red-legged partridges in a hunting estate in Southern Spain due to coinfection with BAGV and Plasmodium spp. The outbreak occurred in the area where BAGV first emerged in Europe in 2010 and where co-circulation of BAGV, USUV and WNV was confirmed in 2011 and 2013. Partridges were found dead in early October 2019. Birds had mottled locally pale pectoral muscles, enlarged, congestive greenish-black tinged livers and enlarged kidneys. Microscopically congestion and predominantly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates were evident and Plasmodium phanerozoites were present in the liver, spleen, kidneys, muscle and skin. Molecular testing and sequencing detected Plasmodium spp. and BAGV in different tissues of the partridges, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence and co-localization of both pathogens in the liver and spleen. Although Plasmodium spp. are known to be highly prevalent in red-legged partridges, this is the first account of mortality caused by co-infection with BAGV and Plasmodium sp. Due to the importance of the red-legged partridge in the ecosystem of the Iberian Peninsula and as driver of regional economy such mortalities are of concern. Also, they may reflect climate change related changes in host, vector and pathogen ecology and interactions that could emerge similarly in other pathogens.
African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are two major transboundary animal diseases of swine with important socioeconomic consequences at farm, subnational and national level. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct cost of outbreaks and their control at country/regional level in four countries: namely CSF in Colombia in 2015-2016, the retrospective cost of ASF in the Philippines in 2019 and in a province of Vietnam in 2020, and a hypothetical ASF scenario in one region in North Macedonia, using the newly developed Outbreak Costing Tool (OutCosT). The tool calculates the costs of 106 different items, broken down by up to four types of farms, and by who assumes the cost (whether veterinary services, farmers or other stakeholders). The total cost of CSF in Colombia was US$ 3.8 million of which 88% represented the cost of the vaccination campaign. For ASF, there were wide differences between countries: US$ 826,911 in Lao Cai (Vietnam), US$ 3,319,666 in North Macedonia and over US$ 58 million in the Philippines. While in the Philippines and Vietnam, 96-98% of the cost occurred in the affected farms, the highest expenditure in North Macedonia scenario was the movement control of the neighbouring and at-risk farms (77%). These important differences between countries depend on the spread of the disease, but also on the production systems affected and the measures applied. Apart from the financial cost, these diseases have other negative impacts, especially in the livelihoods of smallholder farms. The OutCosT tool also allows users to evaluate qualitatively other important aspects related to the epidemics, such as the impact on human health, the environment, animal welfare, socio-economic vulnerability, trading and political response. The main purpose of the OutCosT, which will become a FAO corporate tool, is to support country authorities to rapidly respond to ASF outbreaks by estimating the associated costs, and for advocacy purposes to mobilize resources at national or international levels.
Porcine Deltacoronavirus is a newly emergent enteric pathogen affecting swine farms worldwide. It has been detected in several countries in Europe, Asia and North America; yet, it has not been reported in South America. In November 2019, an enteric disease outbreak in a pig farm located in San Martin, Peru; was reported along with submission of three intestinal samples from pigs who succumbed to the disease. Samples were processed for molecular detection by qRT-PCR, viral isolation and further sequencing analysis. A taqman-based RT-PCR was performed to differentiate among the most relevant swine enteric coronaviruses described to date. All samples were positive to Porcine Deltacoronavirus with a cycle threshold (Ct) value between 9-14, revealing a high viral load, while testing negative to Porcine Epidemic diarrhea and Transmissible Gastroenteritis viruses. Following detection, viral isolation was performed using PK-15 and Vero cell lines. After 5 days of inoculation, no cytopathic effect was observed. A second blind passage allowed the observation of cytopathic effect on PK-15 cells, while it remained absent in Vero cells. A fluorescence test using an anti-N monoclonal antibody confirmed viral replication. One sample was processed for whole genome sequencing (NGS). In short, raw reads were imported into CLC genomics and assembled de novo. Out of 479k reads generated from the sample, 436k assembled into a 25501 bp contig which was 99.5% identical to a reference Porcine Deltacoronavirus strain from US within the North American phylogroup. Yet, there are relevant differences at the nucleotide and amino acid levels compared to previously described Porcine Deltacoronavirus strains. Altogether, our findings represent the first report of Porcine Deltacoronavirus in South America, its genomic characterization, which provides information of its evolutionary origin. Thus, this study offers new insights into the molecular epidemiology of Porcine Deltacoronavirus infections in the swine industry.