Edwardsiella ictaluri is an emerging bacterial pathogen that affects farmed tilapia ( Oreochromis spp.). This study reports the arrival, establishment, and widespread findings of E. ictaluri in farmed tilapia in Vietnam. Among 26 disease outbreaks from 9 provinces in Northern Vietnam during 2019–2021, 19 outbreaks originated from imported seeds, while outbreaks in seven farms were from domestic sources. Clinically sick fish showed the appearance of numerous white spots in visceral organs, and accumulative mortality reached 30%–65%. Twenty-six representative bacterial isolates recovered from 26 disease outbreaks were identified as E. ictaluri based on a combination of phenotypic tests, genus- and species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays, 16S rRNA and gyrB sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. All isolates harbored the same virulence gene profiles esrC +, evpC +, ureA-C +, eseI-, escD-, and virD4-. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 80.8%–100% of isolates were multidrug resistant, with resistance to 4–8 antimicrobials in the groups of penicillin, macrolides, sulfonamides, amphenicols, and glycopeptides. The experimental challenge successfully induced disease that mimicked natural infection. The median lethal doses (LD 50) of the tested isolates (n = 4) were 42–61 colony forming units/fish, indicating their extremely high virulence. This emerging pathogen is established and has spread to various geographical locations, causing serious impacts on farmed tilapia in northern Vietnam. It is likely that this pathogen will continue to spread through contaminated stocks (both imported and domestic sources) and persist. Thus, increased awareness, combined with biosecurity measures and emergent vaccination programs is essential to mitigate the negative impact of this emerging disease on the tilapia farming industry.
In the last decades fungal pathogens are causing devastating population declines across a broad range of taxa. A newly emerging fungal disease, sea turtle egg fusariosis, caused by members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), has been reported to be responsible for hatching failure in sea turtles around the world. However, this has not been reported in other non-marine turtle species. Herein we report high hatching failure from eggs symptomatic of fusariosis in the yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle ( Podocnemis unifilis), inhabiting a pristine environment in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We assessed hatching success from eggs symptomatic and asymptomatic of fusariosis ( n = 680 eggs), tested for Fusarium infection by PCR amplifying the TEF-1α gene (n= 68 turtle internal egg swab samples) and sequenced eight amplicons for screening of FSSC membership on an Illumina Miseq. Hatchability was 72% for asymptomatic eggs, whilst only 8% of symptomatic eggs hatched. Eight percent of asymptomatic and 58% of symptomatic eggs tested positive for Fusarium spp. and sequencing revealed that nine sequence variants from three asymptomatic and four symptomatic eggs corresponded to F. keratoplasticum, F. solani and F. falciforme, the three major FSSC pathogens already reported in sea turtle egg fusariosis. Our study therefore suggests that observed hatching failure of eggs showing symptoms of fusariosis is at least partially caused by Fusarium pathogens within FSSC in a freshwater turtle. This report highlights that fusariosis is more widespread among the Testudines order than previously reported and is not limited to sea environments, which is of particular conservation concern.
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ubiquitous coccidia Toxoplasma gondii. Rodents play an important role in maintaining its life cycle, as they are one of the main diet sources for felids (wild and domestic), the unique definitive hosts. However, reports of toxoplasmosis in porcupines (Rodentia Order) are uncommon, with gaps concerning its pathophysiology. South America is the continent with the greatest genetic diversity of rodents and T. gondii. A free-ranging hairy dwarf porcupine was admitted to a wildlife rescue center with a history of trauma. During rehabilitation, the animal presented neurological symptoms (sporadic episodes of hind limbs paresis) and died five months later. The main findings during necropsy were brain congestion and severe incisor overgrowth associated with maxillary perforation. The histopathological exam showed moderate encephalitis, with variable-sized round cysts, positive for PAS stain and immunohistochemistry for T. gondii. Additionally, two cysts were observed in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Molecular techniques were performed to characterize the parasite load by qPCR (Cq=30) and the genotype by PCR-RFLP with 11 markers, which revealed a new genotype. This case adds to the body of knowledge in comparative pathology of Neotropical Rodentia and reports a new genotype circulating in South America.
For the first time we built a correlative model for predicting the distribution of H. marginatum, one of the main vector of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), at high resolution in a recently colonized area, namely south of France. Field tick collections were conducted on horses from 2016 to 2021 in 14 French southern departments, which resulted in a first map of H. marginatum on the national territory. Such updated presence/absence data, as well as the mean number of H. marginatum per examined animal (mean parasitic load) as a proxy of the tick abundance, were correlated to multiple parameters that described the climate and habitats characterizing each collection site, as well as movements of horses as a possible source of tick diffusion and new establishment. Our model highlighted the importance of warm temperatures all along the year, as well as dry conditions during summer and moderate annual humidity for the establishment of H. marginatum. A predominance of open natural habitats in the environment was also identified as a supporting factor, in opposition to artificial and humid habitats that were determined as unsuitable. Based on this model, we predicted the current suitable areas for the establishment of the tick H. marginatum in South of France, with a relatively good accuracy using internal and external validation methods. Concerning tick abundance, some correlative relationships were similar than in the occurrence model but the type of horse movements were also pointed out as an important factor explaining the mean parasitic load, leading to differential exposure to ticks. The limitations of estimating and modelling H. marginatum abundance in a correlative model are discussed.
During the European emergence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in 2011, examination of Culicoides spp. showed that SBV infected midges were present across Denmark. However, SBV associated malformations in ruminant species have not been reported in Denmark. In April 2021, seven calves with severe congenital generalized arthrogryposis and reduced body weight originating from a narrow region of the Jutlandic peninsula were submitted for examination. Analysis of fetal brain tissue for SBV viral RNA and pleural effusion for fetal anti-SBV antibodies identified SBV as the cause of the congenital syndrome. Backwards calculation from the calving dates indicated the occurrence of an unnoticed emergence of SBV in Denmark from early August 2020 and during the late summer and autumn. As SBV associated malformations may lead to dystocia urging for fetotomy or Cesarean section, veterinarians performing obstetric intervention are first line personnel in recognition of SBV emergence in domestic ruminants.
CDC estimates 1 million dogs are imported into the United States annually. With the movement of large numbers of animals into the United States the risk of disease importation is a concern, especially for emerging diseases. Dogs that arrive to the United States ill or dead are investigated by public health authorities to ensure dogs are not infected with diseases of concern (such as rabies). We identified factors associated with illness and death in imported dogs and estimated the initial investigation cost to public health authorities. Dog importation data from the CDC’s Quarantine Activity Reporting System were reviewed from 2010–2018. The date of entry, country of origin, port of entry, transportation method, and breed were extracted to examine factors associated with illness and death in dogs during international travel. Costs for public health investigations were estimated from data collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Office of Personal Management. Death or illness was more likely to occur in brachycephalic breeds (aOR=3.88, 95%CI 2.74–5.51). Transportation of dogs via cargo (aOR=2.41, 95%CI 1.57–3.70) or as checked baggage (aOR=5.74, 95%CI 3.65–9.03) were also associated with death or illness. On average, 19 dog illnesses or deaths were reported annually from 2010–2018. The estimated annual cost to public health authorities to conduct initial public health assessments ranged from $2,071–$104,648. Current regulations do not provide adequate resources or mechanisms to monitor the rates of morbidity and mortality of imported dogs. There are growing attempts to assess animal welfare and communicable disease importation risks; however, responsibility for dogs’ health and well-being is overseen by multiple agencies. A joint federal agency approach to identify interventions that reduce dog morbidity and mortality during flights while continuing to protect U.S. borders from public health and foreign animal disease threats could be beneficial.
From 2003 onwards, three pandemics have been caused by coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV); middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV); and, most recently, SARS-CoV-2. Notably, all three were transmitted from animals to humans. This would suggest that animals are potential sources of epidemics for humans. The emerging porcine delta-coronavirus was reported to infect children. This is a red flag that marks the ability of PDCoV to break barriers of cross-species transmission to humans. Therefore, we conducted molecular genetic analysis of global clade PDCoV to characterize spatio-temporal patterns of viral diffusion and genetic diversity. PDCoV was classified into three major lineages, according to distribution and phylogenetic analysis of PDCoV. It can be determined that PDCoV originated in Asia—most likely in Southeast Asia—through inference of migration rate and transmission routes. We also selected six special spike amino acid sequences to align and analyze to find seven significant mutation sites. The accumulation of these mutations may enhance dynamic movements, accelerating spike protein membrane fusion events and transmission. Altogether, our study offers a novel insight into the diversification, evolution, and interspecies transmission and origin of PDCoV and emphasizes the need to study the zoonotic potential of the PDCoV and comprehensive surveillance and enhanced biosecurity precautions for PDCoV.
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is becoming a challenge to the national TB control programs including Ethiopia. Different risk factors are associated with the emergence of DR-TB. Identifying these risk factors in a local setting is important to strengthen the effort to prevent and control DR-TB. Thus, this study aimed to assess the risk factors associated with drug-resistant TB in Ethiopia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist was followed to conduct this study. We systematically searched the articles from electronic databases and gray literature sources. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools to assess the quality of studies. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15. We estimated the pooled OR along with 95%CI for each risk factor. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the forest plot and I 2 heterogeneity test. Besides, we explored the presence of publication bias through visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. After intense searching, we found 2238 articles, and 27 eligible studies were included in the final analysis. Based on the pooled analysis of the odds ratio, unemployment (OR; 2.71, 95% CI; 1.64, 3.78), having a history of the previous TB (OR; 4.83, 95% CI; 3.02, 6.64), having contact with a known TB patient (OR; 1.72, 95% CI; 1.05, 2.40), having contact with a known MDR-TB patient (OR; 2.54, 95% CI; 1.46, 3.63), and having pulmonary TB (OR; 1.80, 95% CI; 1.14, 2.45) were found to be the risk factors of drug-resistant TB. While older age TB patients (OR; 0.77, 95% CI; 0.60, 0.95) including age above 45 years OR; (0.76, 95% CI; 0.55, 0.97), and males (OR; 0.86, 95% CI; 0.76, 0.97) were found to had lower risk of DR-TB compared to their counterparts. A previous history of TB treatment is a major risk factor for acquiring DR-TB in Ethiopia that might be due to poor adherence during the first-line anti TB treatment. Besides, having contact with a known TB patient, having contact with a known MDR-TB patient, having pulmonary TB, and being unemployed were the risk factors of DR-TB in Ethiopia. Thus, active screening of TB contacts for DR-TB might help to detect DR-TB cases as early as possible and could help to mitigate its further transmission across the community.
Poultry and poultry-derived products such as meat and eggs are among the main sources of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) transmission to the human. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and used random-effects meta-analyses to 1) estimate the prevalence of NTS in poultry samples from birds, products and subproducts, and environmental samples, 2) examine the diversity and frequency of their serovars, and 3) estimate the prevalence and profiles of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in NTS isolates reported in studies from the Americas. We included 157 studies from 15 countries comprising 261,408 poultry samples and estimated an overall pooled prevalence of 17.9% (95% CI: 10.8–26.3) in birds, 21.8% (17.7–26.1) in products and subproducts, and 29.5% (24.2–35.1) in environmental samples. At the national level, the prevalence of NTS was heterogenous across countries with the highest values in Mexico, the USA, and Canada. In total, 131 serovars were identified from 13,388 isolates, Heidelberg, Kentucky, Enteritidis, and Typhimurium were the most prevalent in the overall top 10 ranking (range 6.5–20.8%). At the national level, Enteritidis and Typhimurium were identified in most of the countries, though with national differences in their ranks. The prevalence of AMR increased from 24.1% for 1 antibiotic, to 36.2% for 2-3 antibiotics, and 49.6% for ≥ 4 antibiotics. Kentucky, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Enteritidis were the serovars with the highest prevalence of AMR and tetracycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, ceftiofur, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were the top five antibiotics to which NTS isolates were resistant. In conclusion, NTS was distributed through the avian production chain with high and heterogenous values of prevalence in poultry samples. Besides, there were distinctive patterns of serovars distribution across countries and an alarming prevalence of AMR among zoonotic serovars.
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen with significant human and veterinary health consequences that periodically emerges in epizootics. RVF causes fetal loss and death in ruminants and in humans can lead to liver and renal disease, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis, and in some cases severe hemorrhagic fever. A live attenuated vaccine candidate (DDVax), was developed by the deletion of the virulence factors NSs and NSm from a clinical isolate, ZH501, and has proven safe and immunogenic in rodents, pregnant sheep and non-human primates. Deletion of NSm also severely restricted mosquito midgut infection and inhibited vector-borne transmission. To demonstrate environmental safety, this study investigated the replication, dissemination and transmission efficiency of DDVax in mosquitoes following oral exposure compared to RVFV strains MP-12 and ZH501. Infection and dissemination profiles were also measured in mosquitoes 7 days after feeding on goats inoculated with DDvax or MP-12. Hypothesis: DDVax should infect mosquitoes at significantly lower rates than other RVF strains and, due to lack of NSm, be transmission incompetent. Exposure of Ae. aegypti and Cx. tarsalis to 6-8 log 10 plaque forming units (PFU)/mL DDVax by artificial bloodmeal resulted in significantly reduced DDVax infection rates in mosquito bodies compared to controls. Plaque assays indicated negligible transmission of infectious DDVax in Cx. tarsalis saliva (1/140 sampled) and none in Ae aegypti saliva (0/120). Serum from goats inoculated with DDVax or MP-12 did not harbor detectable infectious virus by plaque assay at 1, 2, or 3 days-post-inoculation; infectious virus was, however, recovered from mosquito bodies that fed on goats vaccinated with MP-12 (13.8% and 4.6%, respectively), but strikingly, DDvax positive mosquito bodies were greatly reduced (4%, and 0%, respectively). Furthermore, DDVax did not disseminate to legs/wings in any of the goat-fed mosquitoes. Collectively, these results are consistent with a beneficial environmental safety profile .
As social media becomes an ever-increasing staple of everyday life and a growing percentage of people turn to community driven platforms as a primary source of information, the data created from these posts can provide a new source of information from which to better understand an event in near real-time. The 2018-2020 outbreak of virulent Newcastle Disease (vND) in Southern California is the third outbreak of vND in Southern California within a 50-year time span. These outbreaks are thought to be primarily driven by non-commercial poultry (i.e. backyard and game fowl) in the region. Here we employed a commercial “web crawling” tool between June of 2018 and July of 2020 which encompassed the majority of the outbreak in order to collect all available online mentions of virulent Newcastle Disease (vND) in relation to the outbreak. A total of 2,498 posts in English and Spanish were returned using a Boolean logic-based string search. While the number of posts was relatively small, their impact as measured by the number of visitors to the website and the number of people viewing the post (where provided) was much larger. Using views as a metric, Twitter was identified as the most significant source of comments over blogs, forums and other news sites. Posts with negative sentiment were found to have a larger audience relative to posts with a positive sentiment. In addition, posts with negative sentiment peaked in May of 2019 which preceded the formation of the anti-depopulation group Save Our Birds (SOB). As the usage and impact of social media grows, the ability to utilize tools to analyze social media may improve both response and outreach-based strategies for various disease outbreaks including vND in Southern California which has a large non-commercial poultry population.
Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Recently, APPV has been identified as the causative agent of congenital tremor (CT) type AII. The disease is a neurological disorder that affects newborn piglets and is characterized by mostly generalized trembling of the animals and often splay legs. CT is well known worldwide, and the virus seems to be highly prevalent in major swine producing areas. However, little is known about the epidemiology of the infection, the transmission and spread of the virus between herds. Here, we show the high prevalence of APPV in processing fluid samples collected from Hungarian pig herds which led us to investigate the cellular targets of the virus in the testicles of newborn piglets affected by CT. By the development of an RNA in situ hybridization assay and the use of immunohistochemistry on consecutive slides, we identified the target cells of APPV in the testicle: interstitial Leydig cells, peritubular myoid cells and endothelial cells of medium-sized arteries. Previous studies have shown that APPV can be found in the semen of sexually mature boars suggesting the role of infected boars and their semen in the transmission of the virus similar to many other members of the Flaviviridae family. As in our case, the virus has not been identified in cells beyond the blood-testis barrier, further studies on infected adult boars’ testicles are needed to analyze the possible changes in the cell tropism that enable the virus to be excreted by the semen.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected for the first time in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Currently, this virus has spread around the world, and new variants have emerged. This new pandemic virus provoked the rapid development of diagnostic tools, therapies and vaccines to control this new disease called COVID-19. Antibody detection by ELISA has been broadly used to recognize the number of persons infected with this virus or to evaluate the response of vaccinated individuals. As the pandemic spread, new questions arose, such as the prevalence of antibodies after natural infection and the response induced by the different vaccines. In Mexico, as in other countries, mRNA and viral-vectored vaccines have been widely used among the population. In this work, we developed an indirect ELISA test to evaluate S1 antibodies in convalescent and vaccinated individuals. By using this test, we showed that IgG antibodies against the S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 were detected up to 42 weeks after the onset of the symptoms, in contrast to IgA and IgM, which decreased 14 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The evaluation of the antibody response in individuals vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech and CanSinoBio vaccines showed no differences two weeks after vaccination. However, after completing the two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech and the one dose of CanSinoBio, a significantly higher response of IgG antibodies was observed in persons vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech than in those vaccinated with CanSinoBio. In conclusion, these results confirm that after natural infection with SARS-CoV-2, it is possible to detect antibodies for up to ten months. Additionally, our results showed that one dose of the CanSinoBio vaccine induces a lower response of IgG antibodies than that induced by the complete scheme of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated again the global threat posed by emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. During the past two decades alone, humans have experienced the emergence of several coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV in 2003, MERS-CoV in 2012, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019. To date, MERS-CoV has been detected in 27 countries, with a case fatality ratio of approximately 34.5 %. Similar to other coronaviruses, MERS-CoV presumably originated from bats; however, the main reservoir and primary source of human infections are dromedary camels. Other species within the Camelidae family, such as Bactrian camels, alpacas, and llamas, seem to be susceptible to the infection as well, although to a lesser extent. In contrast, susceptibility studies on sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, chickens, and horses obtained divergent results. In the present study, we tested nasal swabs and/or sera from 55 sheep, 45 goats, and 52 cattle, collected at the largest livestock market in the United Arab Emirates, where dromedaries are also traded, for the presence of MERS-CoV nucleic acid by RT-qPCR, and for specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). All sera were negative for MERS-CoV-reactive antibodies, but the nasal swab of one sheep (1.8 %) was positive for MERS-CoV nucleic acid. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of the complete N gene of the sheep-derived MERS-CoV revealed >99 % nucleotide identity to MERS-CoV sequences of five dromedaries in nearby pens and to three reference sequences. The NGS sequence of the sheep-derived MERS-CoV was confirmed by conventional RT-PCR of a part of the N gene and subsequent Sanger sequencing. All MERS-CoV sequences clustered within clade B, lineage 5. In conclusion, our study shows that non-camelid livestock, such as sheep, goats, and cattle do not play a major role in MERS-CoV epidemiology. The one sheep that tested positive most likely reflects an accidental viral spillover event from infected dromedaries in nearby pens.
Worldwide, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and M. synoviae (MS) are the main agents responsible for chronic respiratory disease in poultry. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate their occurrence. We searched electronic databases to find peer-reviewed publications reporting the molecular detection of MG and MS in poultry and used meta-analysis to estimate their pooled occurrence (combined flock and individual), aggregating results at the regional and national levels. We performed a subgroup meta-analysis for subpopulations (broilers, layers, breeders, and diverse poultry including turkeys, ducks, and ostriches) and used meta-regression with categorical modifiers. We retrieved 2,294 publications from six electronic databases and included 85 publications from 33 countries that reported 62 studies with 22,162 samples for MG and 48 studies with 26,413 samples for MS. The pooled occurrence was 38.4% (95% CI: 23.5-54.5) for MS and 27.0% (20.4-34.2) for MG. Among regions, Europe and Central Asia had the lowest occurrence for both pathogens, while MG and MS were highly prevalent in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, respectively. MG occurrence was higher in Algeria, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan, whereas China, Egypt, and Ethiopia reported a higher occurrence of MS. MS and MG were more prevalent in the breeders and layers (62.6% and 31.2%, respectively) than in diverse poultry. The year of publication, the sample size, and the level of ambient air pollution (measured indirectly by PM2.5) were associated with the occurrence of both mycoplasmas. Our study revealed a high and heterogeneous occurrence of MG and MS and justifies the need for an early detection and improved control measures to reduce the spread of these pathogens.
The current pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus named as SARS-CoV2 has underlined the importance of emerging diseases of zoonotic importance. Along with human beings, several species of wild and pet animals have been demonstrated to be infected by SARS-CoV2, both naturally and experimentally. Additionally, with constant emergence of new variants, the species susceptibility might further change, warranting intensification of screening efforts. India is a vast and second most populated country, with a habitat of a very diverse range of animal species. In this study we are reporting infection of SARS-CoV2 in captive Asiatic lions. Detailed characterization revealed involvement of delta mutant (Pango lineage B.1.617.2) of SARS-CoV2 at two different locations. Interestingly, no other feline species enclosed in the zoo/park was found infected. The epidemiological and molecular analysis in this study will contribute to the understanding of SARS-CoV2 emerging mutants in wild and domesticated animals.
The exact origin of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and source of introduction into humans has not been established yet, though it might be originated from animals. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to understand the putative reservoirs, transmission dynamics, and susceptibility patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Rhinolophu s bats are presumed to be natural progenitors of SARS-CoV-2 related viruses. Initially pangolin was thought to be the source of spillover to human, but they might get infected from human or other animal species. So, the virus spillover pathways to humans remain unknown. Human-to-animal transmission has been testified in pet, farmed, zoo and free-ranging wild animals. Infected animals can transmit the virus to other animals in natural settings like, mink-to-mink, and mink-to-cat transmission. Animal-to-human transmission is not a persistent pathway, while mink-to-human transmission continues to be illuminated. Multiple companion and captive wild animals were infected by emerging alpha variant of concern (B.1.1.7 lineage) whereas Asiatic lions were infected by delta variant, (B.1.617.2). To date, multiple animal species- cat, ferrets, non-human primates, hamsters, and bats, showed high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in experimental condition, while swine, poultry, cattle showed no susceptibility. The founding of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animal reservoirs can confronts the control of the virus in humans and might carry a risk to the welfare and conservation of wildlife as well. We suggest vaccinating pet, and captive animals to stop spillover and spillback events. We recommend sustainable one health surveillance at animal-human-environmental interface to detect and prevent future epidemics and pandemics by Disease X.
Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many developing countries and ranked by the World Health Organization among the top seven “neglected zoonoses”. Although a Palestinian brucellosis control program was launched in 1998, the disease reemerged after 2012. Interestingly, a similar reemerging pattern was reported in the neighboring Israeli regions. The aim of this work was to characterize the reemerging strains and delineate their genetic relatedness. During 2015-2017, blood samples from 1324 suspected patients were analyzed using two serological tests. Seropositive samples were cultured, and their DNAs were analyzed by different genetic markers to determine the involved Brucella species and rule out any possible involvement of the Rev.1 vaccine strain. The rpoB gene was sequenced from 9 isolates to screen for rifampicin resistance mutations. Multi Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA-16) was used for genotyping the isolates. The molecular analysis showed that all isolates were B. melitensis strains unrelated to the Rev.1 vaccine. The rpoB gene sequences showed four single nucleotide variations (SNVs) not associated with rifampicin resistance. MLVA-16 analysis clustered the isolates into 22 unique genotypes that belong to the East Mediterranean lineage. Altogether, our findings show that the reemergence of brucellosis was due to B. melitensis strains of local origin, the Palestinian and Israeli control programs’ weaknesses could be a major factor behind the reemergence of the disease. However, other socioeconomic and environmental factors must be investigated. Moreover, strengthening brucellosis control programs and enhancing cooperation between all stakeholders is essential to ensure long-term program outcomes to fight brucellosis.