To the Editor,We appreciate the interest and comments of Soriano and Ancochea1 regarding our papers 2. Further to the suggestion that “it would be of interest to repeat their statistics conducted during the first wave of COVID-19, again with the current estimates during the ongoing second wave, or later ones”, we would like to emphasize that our geographical observation was a type of anecdotal evidence that contributed to formulating a hypothesis. In a previous paper, we found that after adjusting for potentially relevant country-level confounders, there was a negative ecological association between COVID-19 mortality and the consumption of cabbage and cucumber in European countries 3. In this study, we acknowledged that “As in any ecological study, any inference from the observed association should be made at the country level, as the possibility of ecological fallacy precludes inferences at the individual level; and that further testing in properly designed individual studies would be of interest”. Indeed, what would be useful is testing the hypothesis in robust observational studies and/or clinical trials.Regarding our observation that COVID-19 could be considered as a disease of the Anthropocene 4 , other authors have recently provided a more complete description of the links between the disruption of the natural ecosystems that characterize the Anthropocene and the occurrence of zoonosis 5 6.1. Soriano J and Ancochea J. Saved by cabbage, killed by cabbage, and COVID-19. Allergy 2020; in press.2. Bousquet J, Anto JM, Czarlewski W, et al. Cabbage and fermented vegetables: from death rate heterogeneity in countries to candidates for mitigation strategies of severe COVID-19. Allergy 2020. DOI: 10.1111/all.14549.3. Fonseca S, Rivas I, Romaguera D, et al. Association between consumption of vegetables and COVID-19 mortality at a country level in Europe. MedRix 2020; 10.1101/2020.07.17.201558464. O’Callaghan C and Anto J. COVID-19: The Disease of the Anthropocene.Env Res 2020; 187: 109683.doi: 109610.101016/j.envres.102020.109683. Epub 102020 May 109615.5. Morens DM and Fauci AS. Emerging Pandemic Diseases: How We Got to COVID-19. Cell 2020; 182: 1077-1092. 2020/08/28. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.08.021.6. Roche B, Garchitorena A, Guegan JF, et al. Was the COVID-19 pandemic avoidable? A call for a ”solution-oriented” approach in pathogen evolutionary ecology to prevent future outbreaks. Ecol Lett 2020 2020/09/02. DOI: 10.1111/ele.13586.JM AntoISGlobAL, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain. IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain. Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.J BousquetCharité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy Center, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Berlin, Germany. MACVIA-France, Montpellier, France.
Groundbreaking Discoveries in ImmunologyTitle : IgE sialylation: unravelling a key anaphylactic mediatorAuthors : Beatriz Moyaa, Chiara Tontinib and Alexandra Santosc, d, e, fa. Allergy Service. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spainb. Lydia Becker Institute for Immunology and Inflammation, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKc. Department of Women and Children’s Health (Paediatric Allergy), School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UKd. Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, King’s College London, London, UKe. Children’s Allergy Service, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UKf. Asthma UK Centre of Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, London, UKCorrespondence to : Beatriz Moya. Allergy Service. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, SpainEmail: email@example.comAbbreviations: Ig, Immunoglobulin; Fab, antigen-binding fragments; Fc, fragment crystallizable region; FcεRI, Fc epsilon receptor I; MC, mast cells.Word count: 637/1000
Association between asthma and clinical mortality/morbidity in COVID-19 patients using clinical epidemiologic data from Korean Disease Control & PreventionHyo-Geun Choi1, Jee Hye Wee2, So Young Kim2, Joo-Hee Kim3, Hwan Il Kim3, Ji-Young Park3, Sunghoon Park3, Yong Il Hwang3, Seung Hun Jang3, and Ki-Suck Jung31 Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Hallym UniversitySacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea3 Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department ofMedicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University Collegeof Medicine, Anyang, Korea
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an unprecedented global social and economic impact, and numerous deaths. Many risk factors have been identified in the progression of COVID-19 into a severe and critical stage, including old age, male gender, underlying comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, chronic lung disease, heart, liver and kidney diseases, tumors, clinically apparent immunodeficiencies, local immunodeficiencies, such as early type-I interferon secretion capacity, and pregnancy. Possible complications include acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated coagulopathy, acute kidney injury, pulmonary embolism, and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The development of lymphopenia and eosinopenia are laboratory indicators of COVID-19. Laboratory parameters to monitor disease progression include lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and ferritin. The development of a cytokine storm and extensive chest computed tomography imaging patterns are indicators of a severe disease. In addition, socioeconomic status, diet, lifestyle, geographical differences, ethnicity, exposed viral load, day of initiation of treatment, and quality of health care have been reported to influence individual outcomes. In this review, we highlight the scientific evidence on the risk factors of COVID-19.
The role of eosinophils in allergic inflammation is well recognized. In homeostasis these cells are found in multiple healthy tissues including the lung parenchyma, but the function of these resident eosinophils is unknown. Circulating eosinophils are easily quantifiable and have been used to define “eosinophilic phenotype”, and to select patients who are likely to respond to anti-eosinophil and anti-Th2—directed therapies. However, presence of eosinophils in circulation may not necessarily indicate that the eosinophils are key effector cells for an airway disease such as asthma and this may be reason for not all patients responding well to anti-IL5 therapies despite normalization of blood eosinophils. This pro-con commentary examines the role of enumerating circulating vs luminal (sputum) eosinophils (and their activation status) not only to initiate therapies with monoclonal antibodies, but to monitor their clinical response while on therapy.
IgE, the key molecule in atopy has been shown to bind two receptors, FcRI, the high affinity receptor and FcεRII (CD23), mostly found on B cells and that binds IgE with lower affinity. Whereas cross-linking of IgE on FcRI triggers allergic reaction, binding of IgE to CD23 is known to play an important role in both IgE synthesis and presentation. Thus, targeting IgE-immune complexes on B cells has shown to enhance antibody and T cell responses in mice and humans. However, the mechanisms that regulate the targeting of the two receptors and the respective function of the two pathways in inflammation or homeostasis are still matter of debate. Here, we discuss several mechanisms related to IgE and IgE binding to both receptors, as well as the influence of the antigen binding on different immune cells expressing the receptors. One recent paper has shown that free IgE preferentially binds to FcRI whereas IgE immune complexes (IgE-ICs) are preferentially captured by CD23. Binding of IgE-ICs to CD23 on B cells can on one hand regulate serum IgE and prevent effector cell activation and on the other hand facilitate the antigen presentation by delivering antigen to dendritic cells. The data suggest that CD23 play a multifunctional role in regulating the allergic response pathway.
Background: Breastfeeding is associated with long-term health benefits, such as a lower incidence of allergy, asthma, diabetes or celiac disease. However, little is known regarding how the maternal and neonatal immune systems interact after parturition when the neonate receives nutrition from maternal breastmilk. Methods: We undertook a comparative analysis of immune repertoire and function at birth and 3 weeks of age in a cohort of 38 term neonates born by caesarean section grouped according to feeding method (breastmilk versus formula). We used flow cytometry to study the immune phenotype in neonatal and maternal blood samples and mixed lymphocyte reactions to establish the proliferation response of neonatal versus maternal lymphocytes and vice versa. The microbiome of neonatal stool samples was also investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: We show that the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) increases in this period and is nearly two-fold higher in exclusively breastfed neonates compared to those who received formula milk only. Moreover, breastfed neonates show a specific and Treg-dependent reduction in proliferative T cell responses to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA), associated with a reduction in inflammatory cytokine production. Conclusions: These data indicate that exposure of the neonate to maternal cells through breastfeeding acts to drive the maturation of Tregs and ‘tolerizes’ the neonate towards NIMA.
Purpose Tear fluid N-Glycome from patients affected with vernal (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) was investigated to identify specific changes in tears and to recognize possible glyco-biomarkers. Methods The analysis of N-glycans was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry on single tear samples. Tears from control normal subjects (CTRL), VKC and AKC patients were processed and treated with peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) to deglycosylate N-glycoproteins. Released N-glycans were purified, permethylated and analyzed by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry and tandem Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS). Results More than 150 complex N-glycans, including highly fucosylated biantennary, triantennary, tetraantennary and bisecting species, were observed in our spectra. Three distinct patterns for CTRL, VKC and AKC patients were identified in terms of relative intensities for some N-glycans structures. Major variations involved bisecting and hyperfucosylated glycoforms. The most intense ions were associated to species at m/z 1907.0 (asialo, agalacto, bisected, biantennary structure – NGA2B) in CTRL MS profiles, at m/z 2605.3 and 2966.5 in VKC, and at m/z 2792.4 in AKC corresponding to a well-known biantennary, disialylated N-glycan. Several peaks were associated to structures bearing one or two Lewis X epitopes. Structures were confirmed by MS/MS analysis. Quantitative differences among the three groups were statistically significant. Conclusions Tear MS profiles are rich in specific glycoforms, particularly those with a high fucosylation degree, indicating both core and peripheral decoration. Tear N-glycome analysis provided important information for a better comprehension of VKC and AKC alterations at the molecular level
Background: Many arguments suggest that neutrophils could play a prominent role in COVID-19. However, the role of key components of neutrophil innate immunity in severe forms of COVID-19 has deserved insufficient attention. We aimed to evaluate the involvement of Neutrophil Elastase, histone-DNA, and DNases in systemic and multi-organ manifestations of COVID-19. Methods: We performed a multicenter study of markers of neutrophil innate immunity in 155 cases consecutively recruited in a screening center (ambulatory subjects), local hospitals, and two regional university hospitals. The case were evaluated according to clinical and biological markers of severity and multi-organ manifestations and compared to 35 healthy controls. Results: Blood Neutrophil Elastase, histone-DNA, myeloperoxidase-DNA and free dsDNA were dramatically increased, and DNase activity decreased by 10-fold, compared to controls. Neutrophil Elastase and histone-DNA were associated with intensive care admission, body temperature, lung damage and markers of cardiovascular outcomes, renal failure and increased IL-6, IL-8 and CXCR2. Neutrophil Elastase was an independent predictor of the computed tomography score of COVID-19 lung damage and the number of affected organs, in multivariate analyses. The increased blood concentrations of NE and neutrophil extracellular traps were related to exacerbation of neutrophil stimulation through IL8 and CXCR2 increased concentrations and increased serum DAMPs, and to impaired degradation of NETs as a consequence of the dramatic decrease of blood DNase activity. Conclusion: Our results point out the key role of neutrophil innate immunity exacerbation in COVID-19. Neutrophil Elastase and DNase could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets of severe systemic manifestations of COVID-19.
Adequate nasal breathing is indispensable for athletes and nasal symptoms have been shown to inter-fere with their subjective feeling of comfortable breathing and quality of life. Nasal symptoms are caused by either structural abnormalities or mucosal pathology. Structural pathologies are managed differently from mucosal disease and therefore adequate diagnosis is of utmost importance in athletes in order to choose the correct treatment option for the individual. Literature suggests that nasal symp-toms are more prevalent in athletes compared to the general population and certain sport environments might even trigger the development of symptoms. Given the high demands of respiratory function in athletes, insight into triggering factors is of high importance for disease prevention. Also, it has been suggested that athletes are more neglectful to their symptoms and hence remain undertreated, meaning that special attention should be paid to education of athletes and their caregivers. This review aims at giving an overview of nasal physiology in exercise as well as the possible types of nasal pathology. Additionally, diagnostic and treatment options are discussed and we focus on un-met needs for the management and prevention of these symptoms in athletes within the concept of precision medicine.
Background Essential training for emergency adrenaline auto-injector administration alone provides inadequate safeguard in school environments. Recent UK deaths have reinforced the urgency for embedding whole school (WS) allergy awareness to minimise risk. We document development of a practical, flexible WS Food Allergy Awareness Toolkit for UK secondary schools. Methods We used a multidisciplinary participatory action research methodology, involving successive modification and retesting of a pragmatic toolkit in 3 case study schools. A School Allergy Action Group drives WS risk assessment, helping schools gradually implement best practice policy in line with their particular needs. Additional schools self-piloted the resulting toolkit with only remote monitoring. School surveys, based on EAACI guidelines were developed to identify priorities and assess change. Results Effectiveness of the resulting process toolkit, now available online, was independently demonstrated via pre/post intervention questionnaires from 24/10 pupils with food allergy (FA) and 97/6 pupils without FA, respectively. Pearson correlational analysis showed strong negative relationships between Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire (FAQLQ) at T0 and School Support (SS) at T0 (r=-0.8, p<0.01), and between SS and Self-Efficacy (SE) (r=0.73, p<0.05). Mean FAQLQ scores improved between T0 (3.3) and T1 (2.5). SE improved for those with FA (mean difference =1.0). In those without FA, SE (mean difference =0.9) and Attitudes and Knowledge (mean difference =0.7) also improved. Conclusions Full stakeholder involvement in toolkit development encourages usage and therefore improves WS community awareness; reduces risk of reactions; fosters a more accepting societal attitude; and empowers pupils with/without allergies to self-manage effectively.
Background: The SQ tree SLIT-tablet has recently been approved for treatment of tree pollen allergy. Health care workers should be provided with detailed safety data for clinical use. Objective: To assess the tolerability and safety of the SQ tree SLIT-tablet in adults and adolescents. Methods: Safety data were pooled from two phase-II and one phase-III double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trials including adults and adolescents with allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis treated before and during one pollen season once-daily with the SQ tree SLIT-tablet (12 SQ-Bet) or placebo. Results: The most frequently reported IMP-related AEs with 12 SQ-Bet were oral pruritis (39% of subjects) and throat irritation (29%). IMP-related AEs were mainly mild or moderate in severity, and the majority resolved without treatment and did not lead to treatment interruption/discontinuation. With 12 SQ-Bet, oral pruritus was more frequent among PFS subjects (45%) than in subjects without PFS (29%). A greater proportion of PFS subjects interrupted treatment (19%) than subjects without PFS (7%). The 12 SQ-Bet did not seem to induce an increased risk of asthma: 7 events were reported in 7 subjects with 12 SQ-Bet and 11 in 10 subjects with placebo. No differences were seen in the risk of moderate to severe IMP-related AEs regardless of age, PFS status and asthma medical history. Conclusions: The 12 SQ tree SLIT-tablet was well tolerated in tree pollen allergic subjects with no major safety concerns detected. This safety profile supports daily at-home sublingual administration once the first dose is tolerated when administered under medical supervision.
Article Type: News and Views: Groundbreaking Discoveries in ImmunologyTitle: Emollients for the prevention of atopic dermatitisAuthors: Akash Kothari1(https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1980-161X), Arielle Locke2,Thomas Eiwegger1,3,4(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2914-7829)1Translational Medicine Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada2Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland3Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada4Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaCorrespondence to: Thomas Eiwegger, MD, Division of Immunology and Allergy, Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program, The Department of Paediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Tel.: +1 416-813-7654 ext. 1862Conflicts of Interest: AK and AL have nothing to disclose. TE reports to act as local PI for company sponsored trials by DBV and sub-investigator for Regeneron, holds grants from Innovation Fund Denmark, CIHR outside the submitted work. He is Co-Investigator or scientific lead in three investigator initiated oral immunotherapy trials supported by the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program SickKids and serves as associate editor for Allergy. He/his lab received unconditional/in-kind contributions from Macro Array Diagnostics and an unrestricted grant from ALK. He holds advisory board roles for ALK.Financial support: This work was supported by The Hospital for Sick Children, The Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Program at The Hospital for Sick Children, and The Dr Lorus J And Dr Margery J Milne Scholarship from Victoria University at the University of Toronto.Statement of Author Contribution: All authors critically reviewed the original articles (references 6 and 7) and wrote the News & Views: Groundbreaking discoveries in Immunology article. All authors contributed, revised, edited, and approved the final version of the manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.Keywords: emollient, atopic eczema, infancyAbbreviations : food allergy, FA; filaggrin gene, FLG; atopic dermatitis, AD; transepidermal water loss, TEWL; Barrier Enhancement for Eczema Prevention, BEEP; Preventing Atopic Dermatitis and Allergies, PreventADALL
Food allergy is an increasingly common disease worldwide, and is thought to be driven by an uncontrolled type 2 immune response. Current knowledge about the underlying mechanisms that initiate and promote an inappropriate immune response to dietary allergens is limited. Sensitization through the skin in early life is considered to be a key event. Food allergy results from a dysregulated type 2 response to food allergens, characterized by enhanced levels of IgE, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 with infiltration of mast cells, eosinophils and basophils during acute reactions. Recent data implies a possible role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in driving food allergy. ILCs represent a group of lymphocytes that lack specific, recombined antigen receptors. They contribute to immune responses not only through the release of cytokines and other mediators, but also by responding to cytokines produced by activated cells in their local microenvironment. Due to their localization at barrier surfaces of the airways, gut and skin, ILCs form a link between the innate and adaptive immunity. This review summarizes recent evidences on how skin and gastrointestinal mucosal immune system contribute to both homeostasis and the development of food allergy, as well as the involvement of ILCs towards inflammatory processes and regulatory mechanisms.
Sustained milk consumption after 2 years post-Milk Epicutaneous therapy for Eosinophilic EsophagitisJonathan M. Spergel, MD, PhD1,2; Amanda B. Muir, MD2,3; Chris A. Liacouras, MD2,3;Deirdre Burke1, CRA; Megan O. Lewis, MSN, RN, CPNP1; Terri Brown-Whitehorn, MD1,2, Antonella Cianferoni, MD, PhD1,21Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 3Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USAAuthor contribution:JMS-study design, writing manuscript, interpreting data; ABM-writing manuscript, study visits, data interpretation; CAL-writing manuscript, study design, interpreting data; DB-writing manuscript, regulatory coordinator, coordination and collection of data, study visits; MOL-writing manuscript, collection of data, study visits; TBW-writing manuscript, collection of data and study visits, AC-interpreting data, collection of data, study visits, regulatory itemsTo the Editor:Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease of the esophagus without any curative therapy. Typical symptoms of EoE are feeding difficulties, vomiting, abdominal pain and dysphagia and vary by age, with a diagnosis confirmed on esophageal biopsy with> 15 eosinophils/high power field (eos/hpf).1 The two treatment options for pediatric EoE2 are: 1) topical swallowed steroids, which is effective in inducing EoE remission in 50-90% of patients, depending on the dose, formulation and medication used; 2) dietary elimination of the causative allergen/s which is effective in 50-70% of patients with selective food elimination, and 95% with elemental diets3. Cow’s milk (CM) is the most common food allergen causing disease in up to 65% of patients.4 When either treatment is discontinued, inflammation and symptoms recur.3Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is an investigational immunotherapy using low dose allergen exposure through the skin to induce desensitization. In the randomized controlled clinical trial,Study of Efficacy and Safety of Viaskin® Milk for CM-induced EoE (SMILEE Study) , 20 pediatric participants with CM-induced EoE were randomized to receive EPIT with Viaskin® Milk (n=15) or placebo (n=5)(details in appendix). After CM-induced EoE was confirmed, EPIT therapy was applied daily for 9 months during a CM-free period, followed by CM-containing diet for 2 months (Figure 1). At 11 months, subjects completed an upper endoscopy with biopsy to evaluate tissue eosinophilia as the primary endpoint. In the pre-defined per-protocol population (7 patients-Viaskin® Milk, 2 patients- placebo), Viaskin® Milk treated subjects had a lower number of eosinophils/high power field (eos/hpf) on biopsy (25.57 ± 31.19) compared to placebo (95 ± 63.64). After the blinded phase, 19 subjects were eligible to enroll in the open-label extension (additional 11 months of therapy) and had repeat endoscopy and biopsy. At the end of the open-label phase, 6/19 subjects had < 6 eos/hpf (32% response rate); 3/19 subjects had 7-14 eos/hpf for total response rate of 47%.5As part of routine clinical care, we continue to follow all 19 subjects who completed the open-label extension (currently 2 years after the end of Viaskin® Milk therapy) to understand whether CM continued in their diet without symptoms. Four of 5 subjects who had <6 eos/hpf after milk introduction were able to continue with approximately 2 servings of CM/day without any symptoms (Table 1). One of these patients had a clinically indicated endoscopy and biopsy that had 0 eosinophils. Two subjects, who had 6-14 eos/hpf during the study, continued to tolerate CM, including one subject who continued to have 6-14 eos/hpf on repeat endoscopy. In addition, 4 subjects who had significant symptoms ingesting CM and had > 15 eos/hpf during the initial SMILEE study were able to add CM back into their diet without having symptoms, as either baked CM (n=2) or regular CM with concomitant swallowed steroids therapy (n=2).The follow-up of this pilot study for the use of EPIT for milk-induced EoE suggests that the treatment effect can persist for 2 years after stopping therapy; six out of 7 patients in the responder and partial responder groups remain completely symptom-free while consuming an average of 2 servings/day of CM. In contrast to the current therapies of diet elimination or swallowed topical steroids where symptoms return when therapy is stopped, EPIT has demonstrated a persistent effectiveness. These findings align with EPIT’s proposed mechanism of action, by directly targeting and reprogramming the immune response to allergen.3 EPIT may induce true tolerance, as is observed in murine models, where Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) T regulatory cells are induced and can transfer tolerance.6 Further longer-term studies are needed to examine this possibility and confirm these unique findings.Reference:1. Spergel JM, Dellon ES, Liacouras CA, et al. Summary of the updated international consensus diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis: AGREE conference. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.2018;121:281-284.2. Spergel JM, Brown-Whitehorn TA, Muir A, Liacouras CA. Medical algorithm: Diagnosis and treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis in children. Allergy. 2020;75:1522-1524.3. Nhu QM, Aceves SS. Medical and dietary management of eosinophilic esophagitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.2018;121:156-161.4. Kagalwalla AF, Amsden K, Shah A, et al. Cow’s milk elimination: a novel dietary approach to treat eosinophilic esophagitis.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55:711-716.5. Spergel JM, Elci OU, Muir AB, et al. Efficacy of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy in Children With Milk-Induced Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;18:328-336 e327.6. Dioszeghy V, Mondoulet L, Dhelft V, et al. The regulatory T cells induction by epicutaneous immunotherapy is sustained and mediates long-term protection from eosinophilic disorders in peanut-sensitized mice. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014;44:867-881.Sincerely,Jonathan M. Spergel, MD, PhD1,2; Amanda B. Muir, MD2,3; Chris A. Liacouras, MD2,3;Deirdre Burke1, CRA; Megan O. Lewis, MSN, RN, CPNP1; Terri Brown-Whitehorn, MD1,2, Antonella Cianferoni, MD, PhD1,21Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2Department of Pediatrics, The Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA, 3Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USAFunding Sources: The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Eosinophilic Esophagitis Family FundAcknowledgements: JMS, CAL, TBW and MOL are consultants for DBV Technology.Correspondence: Jonathan M. Spergel MD, PhDThe Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaDivision of Allergy and ImmunologyWood Bldg 3352D3401 Civic Center Blvd,Philadelphia, PA 19104Email: email@example.comPhone: 1-215-590-2549Table 1