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Balloon-borne observations of acoustic-gravity waves from the 2022 Hunga Tonga eruption in the stratosphere
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  • Aurélien Podglajen,
  • Alexis Le Pichon,
  • Raphael F. Garcia,
  • Solène Gerier,
  • Christophe Millet,
  • Kristopher M. Bedka,
  • Konstantin V. Khlopenkov,
  • Sergey M. Khaykin,
  • Albert Hertzog
Aurélien Podglajen
Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire de météorologie dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique

Corresponding Author:aurelien.podglajen@lmd.ipsl.fr

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Alexis Le Pichon
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Raphael F. Garcia
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, ISAE-SUPAERO, Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, ISAE-SUPAERO
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Solène Gerier
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Christophe Millet
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Kristopher M. Bedka
NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Langley Research Center
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Konstantin V. Khlopenkov
Science Systems and Applications, Science Systems and Applications
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Sergey M. Khaykin
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Albert Hertzog
Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique
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The 15 January 2022 explosion of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (HT-HH) volcano generated an extreme, quasi-instantaneous perturbation of the atmosphere. As part of its adjustment following the eruption, a rich spectrum of waves radiated away from HT-HH and achieved worldwide propagation. Among numerous platforms monitoring the event, two long-duration stratospheric balloons flying over the tropical Pacific provided unique observations of Lamb and infrasonic wave arrivals, detecting three revolutions of the Lamb wave and five of infrasound waves. Combined with ground measurements from the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System, such observations bring precious insights into the eruption process (chronology and altitude of energy release), and highlight previously unobserved long-range propagation of infrasound modes triggered by the eruption and their dispersion patterns. A comparison between ground- and balloon-based measurements emphasizes generally larger signal-to-noise ratios onboard the balloons and further demonstrates their potential for infrasound studies.