Authorea || CERN's Large Hadron Collider

The Authorea Team

CERN's 2008 Large Hadron Collider is not just the world's largest and most powerful particle collider but also the largest single machine and most complex experimental facility. Here, physicists are able to test fundamental physics theories by smashing particles with extremely high energies. On 8 October 2013 the Nobel prize in physics was awarded jointly to François Englert and Peter Higgs "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider."
The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment, one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland and France. CMS is 21.6 metres long, 15 meters in diameter, and weighs about 14,000 tonnes
Powerful features are needed for powerful research. Answering some of physics' biggest fundamental open questions concerning the basic laws and forces of elementary objects, space time, quantum mechanics, and general relativity is a lofty job. The LHC produces tens of petabytes worth of data every year. With so much data, its computer network infrastructure (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is made up of 170 computing centres from 36 countries, making it the largest distributed computing grid in the world. Yet according to CERN, "the operation of the Large Hadron Collider to date has cost less than the development and creation of a single new US aircraft carrier, the USS Gerald R. Ford", a $13 billion project.

However, like any particle physics experiment, the LHC suffered from diminishing returns after a few years and a "high-luminosity" upgrade was commissioned. In 2013, CERN temporarily shutdown the LHC for two years. In 2015, the LHC was able to produce protons that move faster than light in air (but still slower than the speed of light in a vacuum) and a vacuum that is purer than that of outer space! The increase from 600 million to over 1 billion proton-proton collisions will not only increase scientific experimental capacity, but also the amount of data to more than 30 petabytes every year.
Collision of two protons. Simulated data modeled for the CMS particle detector, Large Hadron Collider (Source: CERN)
The Large Hadron Collider–which was built by over 10,000 scientists and engineers from over 100 countries and in different universities and laboratories–is the epitome of collaboration. At the time of LHC's restart, 60,000+ particle physicists from around