Los nuevos pastores


500 words

  • Paragraph to talk about the nowadays reality and describe some cases of machines actually ruling.
  • Paragraph to introduce the thinking of Hildebrandt about machines.
  • Paragraph to ask a question related with that. Particularly that related with democracy.
  • Paragraph to introduce the thinking of Weber. Reformulate the question to focus rather on legitimacy than in democracy.

## Outline

  • 2500- 3000 palabras
  • (a) Compare and contrast the socio-legal insights offered by two authors you have studied in this course. (b) Provide a critical evaluation of the most significant issues raised, in your view, by an analysis of the relation between law and obedience.
  • My problem:
  • What kind of rules are guiding human behaviour? Theoretical framework of Foucault and of Lessig to say that there are different normative systems affecting human behavior but after the introduction of the concept of normalization by Foucault one can say that the borders between them are disappearing.
  • The new question would be: how have changed the mechanisms of normalization to-day

What have Steve Jobs, David Beckham and Keira Knightly in common? How are they different from a common teacher, police officer or psychiatrist? How are they different from a confessor?

The first group are models, the second casters and forgers; the third is an sculptor. All of them are processes of normalization, is likewise the third?

How is Facebook shaping our identities? How are we shaping Facebook? Is technology making us more autonomous? Actually, Michel Foucault would say that we are just fostering the process of subjectivization. Foucault's power understanding is relational. Engineering of the souls.

Which is the role of ploters and

Many of us have been in libraries looking surprised how self-help books have dominated the best-sellers. More than us, others have bought them. Why?

The pastoral power began as relation in which a person assures salvation in the afterlife looking after each person of the community based on his deep knowledge of those individuals; and finally being ready to sacrifice for the cause. The exploration revealed the truth about the individual.

After some centuries, the objective changed from salvation in the afterlife to salvation here. Mainly this process appeared as consequence of the government of life instead of the government on death. Then the technology spread out and new officers began to use it. Now not only knowledge about the individual but also about the community.

today that has changed a lot, we have come from the subjection by others to the subjection by ourselves to our identities. The power is so entrenched in our minds that is no more necessary another person casting us.

Has been it codified? The process, in the selfhelp books? A DIY of identity construction?

"Do not let others decide who are you, what are you capable of" Both in the esthetics and ethic realms Is the outsourcing of the identity building. Is the result of a struggle to command your own life. However the design continues being made in another place. Prosumption of identities. How much is contradictory to say that things are social constructions and then to establish your own individual isolated rules?

YOLO You Only Live Once FOMO Fear Of Missing Out

But on the other hand this kind of process relieved the traditional forgers from their responsibility -as they did with the family-, actually now they are the culprits of everything "they who controlled your life and said to you what were you capable of"

On the same way, the State is no more the point where all the power relations converge.

Have we transited from a bureaucratic society to a charismatic one?

The process is different, the margin of modernity.

The normalization processes have already conquered the law, now all the other values' systems were the target. To conquer the voice of the consciousness, the society too.

Are you your new policeman, legislator or king?

Why these characters are the models and no others, who decides which capital is more important? Charisma, mana, symbolic capital? What happen with the reality shows? Are they taking back the gods to the earth, re they showing that everyone can get the salvation, evidences of the Word? What happen with the show-business? It gives you the keys to reach the divinity.

“The savage worships idols of wood and stone; the civilized man, idols of flesh and blood. —GEORGE BERNARD SHAW”

Are we increassing the conformity in soceity? (Merton)

Can you off-shore the identity production? To produce it beyond the modernity border... Probably modernity is expanding with the subject in his mind, no more with the productive system attached to a place.

Is there a continuity in the state of affairs? What happen for instance when the peasants-outfit is the fashion now? Changes the production system? Changes something? (Lipovetsky) The art of changing everything just for the sake of changing it.

Before normality was created pointing to the other. Today is more artificial, created from non-normal situation, but applying the same techniques. This is a different normality.

After the Second World War the psychoterapeutic technologies incorporated the subjectifity production as one of their objectives; expressed in desires, capacities and forms of thinking.

It is no more about saying what is this compared to the abnormal, but to say what is and no more.

Which are the values?

Casting the desires to the maximization of the capacities. Hedonism Never feel bad Eliminate fear to failure No absences, no empty spaces in you. Plenitude. No moral barriers Maximization of the lifestyle Less desirant society, more extasis society. Docility and indolence "Nobody says to you what you should so, only what you ought be willing to bear" 771 And if you are not as we say you will be excluded. The thing is that now is the whole society what is saying what do you need to do.

Reach that through asertivity and self steem. (Tutelada as would say Tomas Abraham 2000) These are the ways to prevent you from feeling excluded and incur then in antisocial behavior Estado de autoestima ?? Cruikshank (1996) Una nueva revolucion social que cambia todo. "Self-inspection,-selfmonitoring and selfevaluation according to the criteria that we give ourselves formulated by others" "Fraudulent emancipation" I difer from the author in that there is no ethic, it is a new ethic.

Finally all of them can -must- be free and happy. Traveling , etc. The new paradise is on sale.

These values interact with the politic rationality of the moment. Today will be neoliberalism. But who determined this as political rationality?

The self-help books are to the scope of everyone, the same than the priests.

Foucault Quotes 1

"This is due to the fact that the modern Western state has inte- grated into a new political shape an old power technique that orig- inated in Christian institutions. We can caH this power technique "pastoral power." The Subject and Power 333 First of a11, a few words about this pastoral power. It has ofien been said that Christianity brought into being acode of ethics fundamenta11y different from that of the ancient world. Less emphasis is usua11y placed on the fact that it proposed and spread new power relations throughout the ancient world. Christianity is the only religion that has organized itself as a Church. As such, it postulates in principIe that certain individuals can, by their religious quality, serve others not as princes, magis- trates, prophets, fortune-teHers, benefactors, educationalists, and so on, but as pastors. However, this word designates a very special form of power. l. Itisaformofpowerwhoseultimateaimistoassureindividual salvation in the next world.

  1. Pastoral power is not merely a form of power that commands; it must also be prepared to sacrifice itself for the life and sal- vation of the flock. Therefore, it is different from royal power, which demands a sacrifice from its subjects to save the throne.
  2. It is a form of power that looks afier not just the whole com- munity but each individual in particular, during his entire life.
  3. Finally, this form of power cannot be exercised without know- ing the inside of people's minds, without exploring their souls, without making them reveal their innermost secrets. It implies a knowledge of the conscience and an ability to direct it. This form of power is salvation-oriented (as opposed to political power). It is oblative (as opposed to the principIe of sovereignty); it is individualizing (as opposed to legal power); it is coextensive and continuous with life; it is linked with a production of truth- the truth of the individual himself. But aH this is part of history, you wi11 say; the pastorate has, if not disappeared, at least lost the main part of its efficacy. This is true, but 1 think we should distinguish between two as- pects of pastoral power-between the ecclesiastical institutionali- zation that has ceased or at least lost its vitality since the eighteenth century, and its function, which has spread and multiplied outside the ecclesiastical institution."

"An important phenomenon took place around the eighteenth century-it was a new distribution, a new organization of this kind of individualizing power. 1 don't think that we should consider the "modern state" as an entity that was developed aboye individuals, ignoring what they are and even their very existence, but, on the contrary, as a very so- phisticated structure in which individuals can be integrated, under one condition: that this individuality would be shaped in a new form, and submitted to a set of very specific patterns. In a way, we can see the state as a modern matrix of individu- alization, or a new form of pastoral power. A few more words about this new pastoral power.

  1. We may observe a change in its objective. It was a question no longer of leading people to their salvation in the next world but, rather, e:gsuring it in this world. And in this context, the word "salvation" takes on different meanings: health, well- being (that is, sufficient wealth, standard of living), security, protection against accidents. A series of "worldly" aims took the place of the religious aims of the traditional pastorate, all the more easily because the latter, for various reasons, had followed in an accessory way a certain number of these aims; we only have to think of the role of medicine and its welfare function assured for a long time by the Catholic and Protestant churches.
  2. Concurrently, the officials of pastoral power increased. Some- times this forro of power was exerted by state apparatus or, in any case, by a public institution such as the police. (We should not forget that in the eighteenth century the police force was invented not only for maintaining law and order, nor for as- sisting governments in their struggle against their enemies, but also for assuring urban supplies, hygiene, health and stan- dards considered necessary for handicrafts and commerce.) Sometimes the power was exercised by private ventures, wel- fare societies, benefactors, and generally by philanthropists. But ancient institutions, for example the family, were also mo- bilized at this time to take on pastoral functions. It was also exercised by complex structures such as medicine, which in- cluded private initiatives with the sale of services on ma