Los nuevos pastores

<title> Introduction </title>

500 words

  • Paragraph to talk about the nowadays reality and describe some cases of machines actually ruling.
  • Paragraph to introduce the thinking of Hildebrandt about machines.
  • Paragraph to ask a question related with that. Particularly that related with democracy.
  • Paragraph to introduce the thinking of Weber. Reformulate the question to focus rather on legitimacy than in democracy.


  • 2500- 3000 palabras
  • (a) Compare and contrast the socio-legal insights offered by two authors you have studied in this course. (b) Provide a critical evaluation of the most significant issues raised, in your view, by an analysis of the relation between law and obedience.
  • My problem:
  • What kind of rules are guiding human behaviour? Theoretical framework of Foucault and of Lessig to say that there are different normative systems affecting human behavior but after the introduction of the concept of normalization by Foucault one can say that the borders between them are disappearing.
  • The new question would be: how have changed the mechanisms of normalization to-day

What have Steve Jobs, David Beckham and Keira Knightly in common? How are they different from a common teacher, police officer or psychiatrist? How are they different from a confessor?

The first group are models, the second casters and forgers; the third is an sculptor. All of them are processes of normalization, is likewise the third?

How is Facebook shaping our identities? How are we shaping Facebook? Is technology making us more autonomous?
Actually, Michel Foucault would say that we are just fostering the process of subjectivization.
Foucault's power understanding is relational. Engineering of the souls.

Which is the role of ploters and

Many of us have been in libraries looking surprised how self-help books have dominated the best-sellers. More than us, others have bought them. Why?

The pastoral power began as relation in which a person assures salvation in the afterlife looking after each person of the community based on his deep knowledge of those individuals; and finally being ready to sacrifice for the cause. The exploration revealed the truth about the individual.

After some centuries, the objective changed from salvation in the afterlife to salvation here. Mainly this process appeared as consequence of the government of life instead of the government on death. Then the technology spread out and new officers began to use it. Now not only knowledge about the individual but also about the community.

today that has changed a lot, we have come from the subjection by others to the subjection by ourselves to our identities. The power is so entrenched in our minds that is no more necessary another person casting us.

Has been it codified? The process, in the selfhelp books? A DIY of identity construction?

"Do not let others decide who are you, what are you capable of" Both in the esthetics and ethic realms
Is the outsourcing of the identity building. Is the result of a struggle to command your own life. However the design continues being made in another place. Prosumption of identities. How much is contradictory to say that things are social constructions and then to establish your own individual isolated rules?

YOLO You Only Live Once
FOMO Fear Of Missing Out

But on the other hand this kind of process relieved the traditional forgers from their responsibility -as they did with the family-, actually now they are the culprits of everything "they who controlled your life and said to you what were you capable of"

On the same way, the State is no more the point where all the power relations converge.

Have we transited from a bureaucratic society to a charismatic one?

The process is different, the margin of modernity.

The normalization processes have already conquered the law, now all the other values' systems were the target. To conquer the voice of the consciousness, the society too.

Are you your new policeman, legislator or king?

Why these characters are the models and no others, who decides which capital is more important? Charisma, mana, symbolic capital?
What happen with the reality shows? Are they taking back the gods to the earth, re they showing that everyone can get the salvation, evidences of the Word? What happen with the show-business? It gives you the keys to reach the divinity.

“The savage worships idols of wood and stone; the civilized man, idols of flesh and blood.

Are we increassing the conformity in soceity? (Merton)

Can you off-shore the identity production? To produce it beyond the modernity border... Probably modernity is expanding with the subject in his mind, no more with the productive system attached to a place.

Is there a continuity in the state of affairs? What happen for instance when the peasants-outfit is the fashion now? Changes the production system? Changes something? (Lipovetsky) The art of changing everything just for the sake of changing it.

Before normality was created pointing to the other. Today is more artificial, created from non-normal situation, but applying the same techniques. This is a different normality.

After the Second World War the psychoterapeutic technologies incorporated the subjectifity production as one of their objectives; expressed in desires, capacities and forms of thinking.

It is no more about saying what is this compared to the abnormal, but to say what is and no more.

Which are the values?

Casting the desires to the maximization of the capacities.
Never feel bad
Eliminate fear to failure
No absences, no empty spaces in you. Plenitude.
No moral barriers
Maximization of the lifestyle
Less desirant society, more extasis society.
Docility and indolence
"Nobody says to you what you should so, only what you ought be willing to bear" 771
And if you are not as we say you will be excluded. The thing is that now is the whole society what is saying what do you need to do.

Reach that through asertivity and self steem. (Tutelada as would say Tomas Abraham 2000)
These are the ways to prevent you from feeling excluded and incur then in antisocial behavior
Estado de autoestima ?? Cruikshank (1996) Una nueva revolucion social que cambia todo.
"Self-inspection,-selfmonitoring and selfevaluation according to the criteria that we give ourselves formulated by others"
"Fraudulent emancipation"
I difer from the author in that there is no ethic, it is a new ethic.

Finally all of them can -must- be free and happy. Traveling , etc. The new paradise is on sale.

These values interact with the politic rationality of the moment. Today will be neoliberalism. But who determined this as political rationality?

The self-help books are to the scope of everyone, the same than the priests.

Foucault Quotes 1

"This is due to the fact that the modern Western state has inte- grated into a new political shape an old power technique that orig- inated in Christian institutions. We can caH this power technique "pastoral power."
The Subject and Power 333
First of a11, a few words about this pastoral power.
It has ofien been said that Christianity brought into being acode of ethics fundamenta11y different from that of the ancient world. Less emphasis is usua11y placed on the fact that it proposed and spread new power relations throughout the ancient world.
Christianity is the only religion that has organized itself as a Church. As such, it postulates in principIe that certain individuals can, by their religious quality, serve others not as princes, magis- t