Avalg HW3

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Question 1 (Level E)

Old version

Consider a set \(S\) of \(k\) elements. Let \(h:S\) →{ 1 ; 2 ; … ; 40k} be a 2-universal hash function. For every element \(i\)\(S\) , define a random variable \(X_{i}\) to be 1 if \(h(i)=h(j)\) for some \(j\in S/i\) and 0 otherwise. Prove that \(E[X_{i}]\leq p\) , for some constant \(p<1/2\).

We by definition of a 2-universal hash function that:
Definition (Carter Wegman 1979): Family \(H\) of hash functions is 2 -universal if for any \(x\neq y\in S\) :

Our sought for expected value \(E[X_{i}]\) can be rewritten as \(E[\) \(\sum_{x\neq y}h(x)=h(y)]\) = \(\sum_{x}{}_{\neq}{}_{y}E[h(x)=h(y)]\) As we can know that the probabillity of collision is equally distrebuted:
\(\sum_{x}{}_{\neq}{}_{y}E[h(x)=h(y)]\leq{m\choose 2}\dfrac{1}{n}\)
where \(m\) is the number of eklements and \(n\) the number of hash functions in \(H\).

In our case, we have that \(m=k\) and \(n=40k\); which gives us:
\({m\choose 2}\dfrac{1}{n}\rightarrow\dfrac{k!}{2(k-2)!}*\dfrac{1}{40k}=\dfrac{k!}{80k(k-2)!}=\dfrac{k^{2}-k}{80k}=\dfrac{k-1}{80}\)
If we analyse \((k-2)!\)