Distributed simulation for large cyber-physical multi-energy systems
A paradigm shift both in demand and supply sides is possible with a transition towards distributed generation (Manfren 2011).
The evolution towards decentralized energy systems, in particular through distributed generation, micro-grids and smart micro-grids deeply impact socialy and technicaly urban planning and energy policies (Adil 2016).
Affordability of renewable energy technologies increase with the challenging need to integrate highly fluctuating power from renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. These supply networks disturbances, induced by more sustainable energy production, are and will be the cause of a large number of investments in the short term. Therefore, any expense should aim to make the energy system more sustainable, robust and less expensive to operate. Owners and operators of these infrastructure will have to choose what are the best technological solutions, depending on each specific territory.
Such challenge cannot be looked upon as an isolated issue but should be seen as one out of various means and challenges of approaching sustainable energy systems in general (Lund 2012).
Actual cutting-edge district heating and cooling systems involves meeting the challenge of being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids (Lund 2014).