A paradigm shift both in demand and supply sides is possible with a transition towards distributed generation (Manfren 2011).
The evolution towards decentralized energy systems, in particular through distributed generation, micro-grids and smart micro-grids deeply impact socialy and technicaly urban planning and energy policies (Adil 2016).
Such challenge cannot be looked upon as an isolated issue but should be seen as one out of various means and challenges of approaching sustainable energy systems in general (Lund 2012).
Actual cutting-edge district heating and cooling systems involves meeting the challenge of being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart electricity, gas and thermal grids (Lund 2014).